Transcript for Andrew Jenson, "Smith, Joseph, junior," Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia, vol. 1, Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson History Co., 1901, pages 1-8

Smith, Joseph, junior, the great Prophet of the nineteenth century, and the founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, was born Dec. 23, 1805, in Sharon, Windsor county, Vermont. He was the fourth child of Joseph Smith and Lucy Mack. When about seven years old, he came near losing his leg through a fever sore, but by opening the leg, and extracting several pieces of affected bone, amputation was avoided. In this excruciating operation he exhibited that courage which, united with tender feeling, always marks the character of the great and good. When ten years of age he removed with his parents to Palmyra, New York, where he lived about eleven years, the latter part of the time in Manchester township. At the age of fourteen, when passing one evening through the door-yard of his father's dwelling, he was shot at; but the balls missed him and lodged in the head and neck of a cow. No trace of the person who attempted the murder was ever found, and no reason could be assigned for the attempt. His father was a farmer. Owing to the adversities of his parents, and the difficulty in giving children an education in newly-settled districts, Joseph's advantages for learning were few indeed, but his mind was active in observing and reflecting. On the subject of religion his ideas early began to develop themselves. The aspect of the religious societies around him, however, did not commend either of them to his judgment sufficiently to induce him to become a member. He was somewhat partial to the Methodists, and sometimes attended their meetings. In the midst of this indecision, he had recourse to his Bible, and there read in St. James, "If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not, and it shall be given him." He felt the force of the passage; it gave heavenly confidence, and he resolved to test the promise. Accordingly, on the morning of a beautiful clear day, early in the spring of 1820, he retired to the shade of a wood near by, and after kneeling began to offer up the desires of his heart to God. While thus engaged two personages stood before him, clothed with ineffable brightness, and one, pointing to the other, said, "This is my beloved Son, hear him." Joseph then made known the object of his prayer, and he was informed that he must join neither of the sects, for they were all wrong, and their creeds an abomination in the sight of God. Many other things were communicated by the heavenly personages, and on leaving Joseph they again forbade him to join any of the sects. After receiving this vision, he informed one of the Methodist preachers of it, but met only with ridicule and opposition. He experienced the same in all quarters, and he was led to ask, "Why persecute for telling the truth?"; again, "I had actually seen a vision, and who was I that I could withstand God?" Thus things went on until the evening of Sept 21, 1823, when he received a visitation from the angel Moroni, who informed him that God had a work for him to do, and revealed to him who were the aborigines of America, and where was deposited their sacred record (the Book of Mormon). The angel informed him that this record contained the fullness of the everlasting gospel, and that he should be the instrument in bringing it forth, and have power given him to translate it. The vision was twice repeated during the same night. The next day the angel again stood by his side and gave him further instructions. After he had communicated to his father what he had seen, he repaired to the place where the plates which contained the record were deposited, and was permitted to view them, but it was not till Sept. 22, 1827, that the angel delivered them into his hands. In the meantime, in 1825, Joseph had engaged himself with a Mr. Josiah Stoal, who set him to work digging for a silver mine, which it was reported the Spaniards had opened in Harmony, Susquehannah county, Pa., and from this circumstance arose the opprobrious epithet of a "money digger." While thus engaged, Joseph boarded with a Mr. Isaac Hale, whose daughter Emma he married Jan. 18, 1827. After the plates were entrusted to Joseph, he met with the utmost difficulty in preserving them from his excited persecutors, and was finally under the necessity of leaving Manchester, and going with his wife to Susquehannah county, Pa., which place he reached in December, and immediately commenced copying some of the characters from the plates. In April, 1828, he commenced to translate, and Mr. Martin Harris to write for him. Subsequently and chiefly, Oliver Cowdery was his Scribe. May 15, 1829, Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery were baptized, and, by John the Baptist, ordained to the Aaronic Priesthood. They were shortly afterward ordained to the Melchizedek Priesthood by Peter, James and John. At length, after having passed through many vicissitudes, the translation of the record was completed, and, early in 1830, an edition, under the title of the Book of Mormon, was published. The next great event in Joseph Smith's life was the organization of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, April 6, 1830, in the house of Mr. Peter Whitmer, at Fayette, Seneca county, New York The mission which he had been called to perform soon began to make great progress, and excite corresponding hatred in the hearts of its opposers. In January, 1831, he removed to Kirtland, Ohio, where a branch of the Church, numbering about one hundred members, had previously been raised up. There, among other things, he was engaged in translating the Holy Scriptures. June 19th, in company with his wife, Sidney Rigdon and others, he set out, in compliance with a commandment of the Lord, for Missouri. After his arrival there, in July, it was revealed to him that Independence, Jackson county, Mo., was the place for the New Jerusalem to be built, and that the spot for the Temple was a lot lying a little west of the court house. On the 3rd of August, the Temple site was dedicated. After spending several days in receiving revelations for the Church, and giving instructions for its guidance, he returned to Kirtland, where he arrived on the 27th. His time was now occupied in traveling and preaching in various places by which numbers of converts were made. He also continued the translation of the Scriptures. In March, 1832, while living in Hiram, a mob gathered about his house, and, having dragged him from it in the dead hour of the night, tarred and feathered him and left him half dead on the bare ground. He left again for Missouri early in April, 1832. Arriving in Jackson county, on the 24th, he met with a welcome "only known to brethren and sisters united as one in the same faith, and by the same baptism, and supported by the same Lord." May 6th, he set out to return to Kirtland, and on the way the horses of the stage, in which he and the other brethren were traveling, took fright. Bishop Newel K. Whitney jumped out, and in doing so caught his foot in the wheel, by which his foot and leg were broken in several places. Joseph jumped out, but cleared himself. This accident detained Joseph with Bishop Whitney at Greenville four weeks, and while there Joseph nearly lost his life by poison mixed with his dinner, either intentionally or otherwise, but it is supposed intentionally. They recommenced their journey the following morning, and arrived in Kirtland some time in June. There, during the following year, he was very active, and, according to revelations, commenced the building of a Temple, the corner stones of which were laid July 23, 1833. Feb. 17, 1834, he organized the first High Council in the Church at Kirtland. A few days later (Feb. 24th) he received a revelation concerning the troubles that the Saints in Missouri were experiencing, by which he was commanded to select the young men in the Eastern branches of the Church to go up to their relief. Accordingly, on the 26th, he started from home to obtain volunteers for this purpose, and on the 5th of May he set out with about one hundred men, with clothing and other necessaries for the Saints, who were suffering in Missouri. After a long and difficult journey as leader of the historical Zion's Camp, he arrived in Missouri. He organized a High Council in Clay county, and otherwise arranged the affairs of the Church in Missouri. While he was there, the High Council, by his direction, addressed an appeal, on behalf of the Church, to the authorities of the State and of the nation, and to all people, for peace, and praying for protection while they sought to obtain, without force, their rights, privileges and immunities. In July, Joseph again returned to Kirtland. Feb. 14, 1835, assisted by the Three Witnesses to the Book of Mormon, he called and ordained Twelve Apostles, and soon afterwards commenced the organization of the Seventies. Later in that year he obtained some rolls of papyrus, covered with hieroglyphic figures and devices. One of these rolls were found to contain the writings of Abraham, which were translated by Joseph. March 27, 1836, he dedicated the Lord's house in Kirtland. With Oliver Cowdery he was favored to behold a vision of the Lord Jesus Christ; one of Moses, who committed unto them the keys of a dispensation for gathering Israel from all parts of the earth; one of Elias, who committed unto them the gospel of Abraham; and another of Elijah, who committed unto them the keys of a dispensation to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the children to the fathers. Many other persons saw glorious visions on the same occasion. In June, 1837, assisted by his counselors in the First Presidency, Joseph set apart Heber C. Kimball and Orson Hyde, two of the Twelve, as missionaries to England. This was the first foreign mission appointed by the Church. In the following September, he left Kirtland for Missouri, in company with Sidney Rigdon, to fulfil a mission appointed them by a conference of Elders. The object of the mission was to lay off new Stakes of Zion for the rapidly increasing members of the Church to gather to. On his return, in the following December, he found "apostasy, persecution and confusion" prevailing to an alarming extent. He states that the new year dawned upon the Church in Kirtland in all the bitterness of apostate mobocracy, which continued to rage, so that it was necessary for Elder Rigdon and himself "to flee from its deadly influence, as did the Apostles and Prophets of old. They started from Kirtland about 10 o'clock in the evening of January 12, 1838, on horseback, and reached Norton, Medina county, Ohio, sixty miles distant, by the next morning. Here they tarried until the arrival of their families, and on the 16th continued their journey in wagons to Far West, Mo. Joseph had only resided there about six months before the troubles the Saints had been wading through for several years reached their highest pitch, and he, together with others, was betrayed into the hands of the mob-militia on Wednesday, Oct. 31st. The next day, his brother Hyrum was arrested and brought into camp. A court martial was then held and they were condemned to be shot on Friday morning on the public square in Far West, as an example to the "Mormons," but, owing to the dissension of Gen. Doniphan, the sentence was not put into execution. They and five other brethren were carried off to Independence under a strong guard, from whom they suffered many indignities by the way. From thence they were taken to Richmond, where they arrived Nov. 9th. Gen. Clark, the head of the mob militia, who had the brethren in custody, determined to shoot them three days after their arrival, but by the influence of certain parties he was intimidated, and after searching through a military code of laws and finding that preachers of the gospel, who had never done military duty, could not be subject to court martial, he delivered them over to the civil authorities, to be tried as persons guilty of "treason, murder, arson, larceny and theft." They underwent a mock trial, and were then sent to Liberty in Clay county, where they were put into jail and confined about five months. Poison was given to them several times and even human flesh, during this imprisonment. In the following April, they were removed to Daviess county to have a trial, as it was said, but it was a mere farce-the grand jury who sat upon their case during the day acted at night as their guard, and boasted of the bloody deeds they had committed at Haun's Mill and other places of sad memory, They were, however, indicted for "treason, murder, arson, larceny, theft and stealing," on which they asked for a change of venue to Marion county, but it was refused and one given for Boone, in removing to which place the sheriff, who had them in charge, told them that he had been requested by Judge Birch, of Daviess county, never to carry them to Boone county, and give them permission to escape, which they availed themselves of, and Joseph and Hyrum arrived in Quincy, Ill., a few days afterwards. There they were welcomed by the embraces of their families, and received the congratulations of the Saints and sympathizing friends. May 9th, Joseph and his family left Quincy for Commerce, and on the 9th took up their residence in a small log house on the bank of the Mississippi river. About this time the Saints were making out statements of their losses and sufferings in Missouri, to present to the President of the United States, with a petition to Congress for redress, and on the 29th of October Joseph left Nauvoo for Washington, with Sidney Rigdon and Elias Higbee, the three having been appointed a committee to present the petition. After arriving in Washington they had an interview with President Martin Van Buren, and subsequently with John C. Calhoun. It was at this interview that Mr. Van Buren uttered the well known words-"Gentlemen, your cause is just, but I can do nothing for you." Early in February, 1840, seeing that all his efforts were ineffectual to obtain redress for the wrongs the Saints had endured, Joseph left the capital for Nauvoo. The remaining four years of his life may be said to have been chiefly occupied in the building up of that city as a gathering place for the Saints. After remaining silent for nearly two years. Missouri made a demand on Governor Carlin, of Illinois, for Joseph Smith and others. A writ for their apprehension was issued, but the sheriff could not find them. The writ was returned to the sheriff, and the matter dropped at that time. Among the numerous revelations which Joseph received from the Lord, for the guidance of the Church at large, one received Jan. 19, 1841, deserves special mention. In that he was commanded to immediately make a proclamation of the gospel to all kings of the world, to the president and governors elect of the United States, and to all the nations of the earth. In that revelation also were pointed out the duties of various members of the Priesthood. It required a boarding house to be built for the accommodation of strangers who should go up to Nauvoo to contemplate the work of the Lord, called upon the Saints to come from afar with their wealth and means, to help to build a Temple to the Lord, in which, among other ordinances of salvation, might be administered baptism for the dead, etc. In June, 1841, in returning from Quincy to Nauvoo, Joseph was arrested on the writ before referred to, for the purpose of being delivered up to Missouri. A writ of habeas corpus was obtained, and the case was heard at Monmouth, Warren county, before Judge Stephen A. Douglas, of the United States Supreme Court, which resulted in his immediate discharge. The Hon. O. H, Browning, in addressing the court for the defense, eloquently referred to the cruelties of Missouri. He concluded with the following language: "And shall this unfortunate man, whom their fury has seen proper to select for sacrifice, be driven into such a savage land, and none dare to enlist in the cause of justice. If there was no other voice under heaven ever to be heard in this cause, gladly would I stand alone, and proudly spend my last breath in defence of an oppressed American citizen." In the summer of 1842, Joseph Smith succeeded John C. Bennett in the mayoralty of Nauvoo, which office he retained until his death. May 6th, of this year, Lilburn W. Boggs, ex-governor of Missouri, was shot at and wounded at his residence in Independence, Mo. Still as relentless as ever in his purpose to destroy Joseph, he charged him with being accessory before the fact, and applied to Thos. Reynolds, governor of Missouri, to make a demand upon the governor of Illinois for him. Accordingly, a writ was served upon him Aug. 8, 1842. An investigation into the matter was had on a writ of habeas corpus, in January, 1843, at Springfield, before the Hon. Nathaniel Pope, judge of the circuit court of the U. S. for the district of Illinois, which ended in an honorable acquittal, the judge requesting, "that the decision of the court be entered upon the records in such a way, that Mr. Smith be no more troubled about the matter." Missouri, however, still true to her purpose, continued to excite the public mind against Joseph, and made another demand upon Illinois to deliver him up to her for trial on charge of treason, and in June, while he was visiting at Inlet Grove, twelve miles from Dixon, Ill., Joseph H. Reynolds, sheriff of Jackson county, Mo., and Harman T. Wilson, of Carthage, Ill., appeared with a writ from the governor of Illinois, and arrested him. They drove him to Dixon in a wagon and frequently struck him with their pistols on the way, and would have immediately carried him into Missouri to be murdered, but for the interference of the people. With much difficulty a writ of habeas corpus was procured at Dixon, and made returnable before the nearest tribunal, in the 5th Judicial District, authorized to hear and determine upon such writs, which was at Nauvoo. On returning there a writ was sued out and made returnable before the municipal court, and, upon examination, Joseph was discharged from arrest upon the merits of the case, and upon the further ground of substantial defects in the writ issued by the governor of Illinois. Missouri was not yet satisfied, but made a requisition upon Governor Ford, of Illinois, to call out the militia to retake Joseph. To this the governor objected, as the laws of the State had been fully exercised in this matter, and everything had been done which the law warranted. The affair cost Joseph upwards of $3,500. At Dixon he sued out a writ against Reynolds and Wilson, for false imprisonment, and using unnecessary violence in arresting him. May 9, 1844, the case was called up for trial, and a verdict for the plaintiff was recorded, with $40 damages and the cost of the suit. July 12, 1843, the Prophet Joseph received from the Lord the great revelation on marriage, but it was not published to the world until 1852. The growing importance of Nauvoo, the increase of members of the Church in all parts of the Union, and in Great Britain, together with the perplexity caused by false friends and apostates in Nauvoo, made Joseph's duties truly multifarious; but, in the midst of all, his love for the Saints was constant, and his regard for their interest ever wakeful. The presidential chair of the United States at this time was about to be vacated. Among the new candidates were John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay, and to ascertain what would be their rule of action to the Saints as a people, Joseph wrote to each, setting forth how they had been persecuted by Missouri, and had failed to obtain redress, though they had petitioned from the State courts to Congress itself. Very exceptional replies were returned, and Joseph rejoined at some length, severely commenting upon them. The number of votes which the Saints could give was not unknown to the rival parties-Whig and Democrat, and they were courted by both; but the Saints, who could not feel justified in giving them to either, put Joseph Smith forward as a candidate. Feb. 7, 1844, he issued an address to the American people, declaring his views on all the great leading political topics of the times. This, and the correspondence between him and Calhoun and Clay, were published in the "Times and Seasons." Though Joseph was not elected, this course prevented political demagogues from making a target of the Saints, as had been the case at previous elections, and also enabled them to vote for one whom they considered "honorable, fearless, and energetic," and "that would administer justice with an impartial hand, and magnify and dignify the office of chief magistrate." Francis M. Higbee, a member of the Church, had been accused by Joseph Smith, some time in 1842, of seducing several women, and of other evil conduct, and was brought before Presidents Brigham Young and Hyrum Smith, and others, which much enraged him. Similar charges were preferred against the notorious John C. Bennett. They both confessed and asked forgiveness. But their repentance was not sincere, and they secretly determined to ruin Joseph. The thing festered in Higbee's mind until May, 1844, when he sued out a writ, from the circuit court of Hancock county, for the arrest of Joseph, on the plea of defamation of character. The damages were laid at $5,000. Joseph was accordingly arrested, but petitioned the municipal court of Nauvoo, for a writ of habeas corpus, that the whole matter might be thoroughly investigated. An examination took place before that court, and resulted in his discharge; first, from the illegality of the writ, upon which he was arrested, and secondly, from its being fully proven that the suit was instituted through malice, private pique, and corruption, and ought not to be countenanced. This led, in quick succession, to the establishment in Nauvoo of a newspaper called the "Nauvoo Expositor," which had for its object the defamation of the citizens who were not of their party. The foulest libels upon Joseph Smith's private character, and that of other persons, appeared in its columns, and its prospectus actually proposed the repeal of the city charter. The city council, falling back upon their prerogatives, contained in the charter and in the legislative powers of the city council, declared the "Expositor," on account of its filthy contents, a nuisance, and ordered its abatement, which was carried out by the city marshal and the police. Its proprietors then went to Carthage, the county seat, and sued out a writ against the mayor, marshal, and police, for a riot! The constable from Carthage executing the writ was requested by Joseph and his companions to return them anywhere else but Carthage, as that place had become the rendezvous of the most hostile opponents of the Saints, and fatal consequences were apprehended if he and the other defendants were taken thither. The constable, however, refused, upon which the municipal court sued out a writ of habeas corpus, which the charter empowered them to do, and an investigation was had before the court. It resulted in the dismissal of the prisoners, and no riot had been committed, they having only acted in the discharge of a duty imposed upon them by the city council. The mobbers refused to recognize the writ of habeas corpus, and the decision of the municipal court, and sent runners through Hancock and the surrounding counties, to ignite the already inflammable materials which everywhere abounded in the shape of virulent opposers of the truth, and haters of Joseph Smith and Nauvoo. By this means a mob was raised to again arrest Joseph, or lay the city in ashes, and literally exterminate its inhabitants. Volunteers were actually invited from Missouri to join in the unlawful proceeding. In this emergency, the Nauvoo Legion, numbering between 3,000 and 4,000 men, was placed under arms to defend the city against the mob, until the governor should do something in his official capacity. These prompt measures induced the mob to remain in Carthage and Warsaw, and this was the position of the parties when the governor appeared in that town. Instead of the mob being dispersed and the ringleaders arrested, it was actually mustered into regular service, the governor placing himself at its head. His first act was to disband the Legion, whose men were standing in defense of their own lives, those of their wives, children, and of the citizens generally. He then requested the mayor, marshal and policemen who had been before arrested and discharged, as related, to repair to Carthage and appear before a magistrate to answer the charges preferred against them in the writ; thus, in his capacity of governor and the representative of justice, trampling upon the rights of a chartered city, habeas corpus and all. The prisoners were taken to Carthage, June 24, 1844, the public arms were demanded from the Legion, and the city was left defenseless within half a day's journey of an infuriated mob. The prisoners arrived at Carthage late at night, and, on the morning of the 25th, were apprehended on a charge of treason, founded on the affidavits of Henry O. Norton and Augustine Spencer. In the afternoon the prisoners appeared before Robert F. Smith, J. P., to answer to the charge of riot, but by the advice of counsel, and to prevent further excitement, they voluntarily entered into recognizances in the sum of $500 each for their appearance at the next term of the circuit court for the county. Joseph and Hyrum had not been at liberty above half an hour before they were waited upon by Constable Bettesworth, who had arrested them in the morning upon the charge of treason. He insisted upon their going to jail with him, but their counsel, Messrs. Woods and Reid, objected to it, as they were entitled to an examination before they could be sent to jail. The constable holding a mittimus from Justice Smith, they were conveyed to jail, "there to remain until discharged in due course of law." The next day the said justice commanded the constable to bring them before him for examination, The jailor refused to give them up. The justice then sent a body of "Carthage Greys," of which he was captain, and they, by intimidation and threats, procured Joseph and Hyrum, and brought them before him. The counsel for the prisoners expressed a wish for subpoenas for witnesses from Nauvoo, which were granted, and the examination was postponed until 12 o'clock on the 27th. In the course of the day the return of the subpoenas was altered to the 29th, but on June 27, 1844, between 5 and 6 o'clock, the mob rushed upon the jail, overpowered the guard, and shot Joseph and Hyrum dead. Elder John, Taylor was wounded with four bullets, and a fifth struck his watch which saved his life. The fingers pointed to 5 h., 16 m., 26 sec., leaving on record the exact time when the tragedy occurred. On the first day of their imprisonment, Joseph and Hyrum were visited by Governor Ford, who, after a lengthy conversation upon the leading causes which had given rise to the difficulties, promised them protection, and pledged his word and the faith and honor of the State, that they should be protected. He had made this pledge on a previous occasion. The governor also stated that he intended to march into Nauvoo at the head of the force which had assembled, to gratify them, and that the prisoners would accompany him, and afterwards return to attend the trial before the magistrate, which had been postponed to the 29th. This intention was not, however, fully carried into effect. The troops were disbanded except two companies-one from McDonnough county, and the other the Carthage Greys. At the head of the first the governor marched to Nauvoo, but without the prisoners; they were left in prison with the Carthage Greys to protect them-the same men who had just previously mutinied, and came near shedding their blood in the governor's presence. After his arrival at Nauvoo, the governor called the citizens together, and addressed them for about twenty minutes in a most insulting manner, and while the outraged citizens of Nauvoo were listening to this harangue, the prophet and his brother were being murdered in jail. On leaving Nauvoo for Carthage, Joseph expressed himself thus, "I am going like a lamb to the slaughter; but I am calm as a summer's morning. I have a conscience void of offence towards God, and towards all men. I shall die innocent, and it shall yet be said of me. 'He was murdered in cold blood.'" His whole life was one of extraordinary activity. In about seventeen years he brought forth and translated the Book of Mormon; received numerous revelations, from which the Book of Doctrine and Covenants is mainly compiled; caused his mission to be proclaimed in the four quarters of the globe, and saw, according to many authorities, more than 50,000 persons receive it; founded and built up a city, to which people gathered; and built one Temple at Kirtland, and partially another at Nauvoo. From first to last he was involved in about fifty lawsuits, arising out of the persecutions of his enemies, but came out of the legal furnace "without the smell of fire, or a thread of his garment scorched." For a period in 1842, he edited the "Times and Seasons," and at his death was mayor of Nauvoo; lieutenant-general of the Nauvoo Legion (a portion of the State militia), one of the regents of the Nauvoo University, and a member of the Nauvoo Agricultural and Manufacturing Association. He had four sons, Joseph, Frederick G. W., Alexander, and Don Carlos, and a fifth, David H., was born about five months after his assassination. He was tenderly attached to his family, and in private life was always cheerful and agreeable. In public capacity he was courteous and affable. He was not suspicious, and believed that all men were honest, which drew around him several hypocrites and designing wicked men, who caused him much sorrow, and were the source of his chief persecutions. He was truly inspired of God, and commensurate with his holy calling, so that "without learning, without means, and without experience, he met a learned world, a rich century, a hard hearted, wicked and adulterous generation, with truth that could not be disproved." The following pen picture of the Prophet Joseph is drawn by Parley P. Pratt: "Joseph Smith was in person tall and well built, strong and active; of a light complexion, light hair, blue eyes, very little beard, and of an expression peculiar to himself, on which the eye naturally rested with interest, and was never weary of beholding. His countenance was ever mild, affable, beaming with intelligence and benevolence; mingled with a look of interest and an unconscious smile or cheerfulness, and entirely free from all restraint or affectation of gravity; and there was something connected with the serene and steady penetrating glance of his eye, as if he would penetrate the deepest abyss of the human heart, gaze into eternity, penetrate the heavens, and comprehend all worlds. He possessed a noble boldness and independence of character; his manner was easy and familiar; his rebuke terrible as the lion; his benevolence unbounded as the ocean; his intelligence universal, and his language abounding in original eloquence peculiar to himself-not polished-not studied-not smoothed and softened by education and refined by art; but flowing forth in its own native simplicity, and profusely abounding in variety of subject and manner. He interested and edified, while, at the same time, he amused and entertained his audience; and none listened to him that were ever weary with his discourse. I have even known him to retain a congregation of willing and anxious listeners for many hours together, in the midst of cold or sunshine, rain or wind, while they were laughing at one moment and weeping the next. Even his most bitter enemies were generally overcome, if he could once get their ears. I have known him when chained and surrounded with armed murderers and assassins who were heaping upon him every possible insult and abuse, rise Up in the majesty of a son of God and rebuke them in the name of Jesus Christ, till they quailed before him, dropped their weapons and on their knees begged his pardon, and ceased their abuse. In short, in him the characters of a Daniel and a Cyrus were wonderfully blended. The gifts, wisdom and devotion of a Daniel were united with the boldness, courage, temperance, perseverance and generosity of a Cyrus. And had he been spared a martyr's fate till mature manhood and age, he was certainly endued with powers and ability to have revolutionized the world in many respects, and to have transmitted to posterity a name associated with more brilliant and glorious acts than has yet fallen to the lot of mortals. As it is, his work will live to endless ages, and unnumbered millions yet unborn will mention his name with honor." (See History of Joseph Smith as published in "Mill. Star," Vols. 14 to 25; "Historical Record," Vol. 7; Life of Joseph Smith by Geo. Q. Cannon; Life of Joseph Smith by Edward W. Tullidge, and Church publications generally.)