Transcript for James Farmer journal, 1851 April-1856 November

Tuesday May 4th. I Brother Palmer and wife left for Keokuk with about 200 saints and arrived about 7 at night 5th. The Steamer was a quick boat named “Jenny Dean” [.] slept at the Depot all night.

6th. The Brethern came down from the camp with their teams to bring up our luggage[.] we rejoiced to see these brethern[.] they were located on the most healthy spot of ground in this country and all looked healthy and cheerful[.] we were kindly received[.] got our Wagon and put on the cover and retired to bed much tired.

7th. Visited the Saints in Camp[.] there were English, Irish, Scotch, Welch, Danish, French, and from all nations[.] I was much pleased to see such a company[.] they all seemed to enjoy themselves and always at night the camp echoes with the songs of Zion. At 10 at night the Bugle sounded for all the Saints to go to bed. The Camp was divided into Wards and men appointed to watch so many from each Ward.

10th. Sunday was a wet day which was a disappointment to the inhabitants of Keokuk who desired to hear the Gospel for themselves[.] the Presidents of each Ward embrased every opportunity to warn them.

11th. A fine day. Bro. Palmer with whom I had agreed in the presence of Bro. Angus at Liecester [Leicester] that he should fine [find] me provisions for my driving for him backed out and wanted me to find my own food and drive for nothing. I agreed to do so as far as the Bluffs but he gave me notice to get a fresh plan as he could not take me it being inconvenient as far as sleeping was concerned and I agreed to do so.

13th. Agreed with Elder Jacob Gates to drive his team to the Bluffs and he was to find me food for my labor and take my luggage free. During this week I worked on the public works four days for a Mr. Marshall[.] he refused to pay the saints more than one dollar each[.] there were hundreds of the Brethren working there and he robbed them all of part of their wages[.] We agreed to leave it in the hands of Elder Haight but at present he has not been able to get anything from him.

17th. This day there was Public preaching in the open air[.] the Congregations were addressed by elders Gates, Haight, Wheelock and others[.] Many of the inhabitants of Keokuk and surrounding country were present[.] all went off peacable and quiet and the Saints truly rejoiced[.] we also had with us Elders Harmon, Fosgreen, Kendall, Speakman, Clauson and Many others who did all they could to help the saints in their different Companies[.] about this time I wrote several letters to my friends in England[.] one to my Father[,] to Sister Batemen, Bro. Arnold and one to Bro. Bonn of St. Louis[.] Several companies of Saints had left for the Bluffs and we were preparing for the journey.

24th. The day appointed for our company to Roll out of keokuk[.] the morning was fine and about 10 we left in company with Elders Gates, and Harmon[,] 9 waggons in all[.] we went along very well but the road was bad and many of the Brethren had a great difficulty in getting along[.] about 12 we passed Bro. Browns waggon who was stuck fast at the rise of a hill[.] at 1 we stopped to take refreshment and to let the cattle feed. at 6 we stayed at the dividing creek for the night[.] plenty of wood and water. 10 miles from Keokuk[.] made our fires eat our suppers and went to bed. we had with us Bro. [John G.] and Sister [Lucy] Wilson and Sister Fosbury [Emma Forsberry]. there was plenty of grass for the cattle.

25th. Was a fine morning and we arose refreshed by repose[.] kindled our fires and got breakfast and roled out and arrived at ____________ Creek about 6 p.m. passing Charlestown by the way[.] pitched our tents and found plenty of water and grass[.] we camped in a valley surrounded by woods[.] the weather continued fine for several days[.] Elder Fosgreen came along and camped close by us with a compy of Dainish [Danish] Saints[.] we kept a watch over our cattle and did the best we could.

June 2nd. Elder Gates left us to fetch a company from Keokuk according to his appointment[.] about sun down we had a heavy storm[.] Thunder and lightening and rain which continued all night[.] rained through our tents and wagon covers and we were wet all night[.] the storm appeared dreadful.

3rd. We found one of our oxen dead[.] it had been frightened by the thunder and got strangled in the Yoke. at 6 we found the water rising fast in the creek and at 8 we had to remove our waggons for the flood at this time was rising fast[.] so we removed to a hill a short distance from the creek and spent the day in attending to the cattle[.] at this time we are about 22 miles on our journey[.] Elder Fosgreen left here for Farmington on the 1st. of June[.] the Saints were all in good health.

June 6th. 1853. Fine weather but bad road through so much rain having fallen. In the afternoon Elder Gates returned and informed us that his company was on the way and ordered us to prepare to start for Farmington the next day[.] the company came in camp all in good health.

7th. Arose about 4 and took our cattle out to feed[.] it was a fine morning and We all felt desirous to start and about 10 we started with about 30 waggons. 20 of them belonging to the L10 Compy [Ten Pound Company]. Bro. Gates was the President[.] the other waggons were independant. The Roads were very bad but most of the Compy got along very well. Bro. Gates taking a very active part and giving assistance on the way. Bro. Charles Welsh drove first with Bro. Thistles Waggon, I and Bro. Wilson and [William Frederick] Darly follwed with Bro. Gates & Waggons. Bro. Th_______ was captain over our ten and took an active part[.] we arrived at Farmington about 6 Oclock. many of the Brethren bought provisions to last them to the Bluffs[.] we afterwards crossed the Praies River (?)[.] Farmington is a small but neat town[.] the road from here to the camping place is bad and in wet weather impassable[.] the day being fine we got along very well[.] arrived at the camping ground[.] found plenty of feed and good water[.] it is about 14 miles from Sugar Creek[.] Many of the Brethren did not get in this evening[.] we arrived about 8. Made our fires cooked our supper and went to Bed.

8th. rose at 4[.] found the cattle all right[.] the morning was fine and Bro. Gates went to meet the cows on the road from Keokuk belong-ing to the L10 Compty. the Brethren began to arrive in Camp that could not get up the night before[.] they all got in by 1 and at 2 it began to rain and we stayed here 2 days.

10th. June. Bro. Gates returned quite unwell and gave orders to prepare to start the next day[.] in the afternoon he called a meeting and the company was organized and every thing set in order for the journey. Captains of ten and 50’s were chosen and appointed to the satisfaction of all. the day was fine and the Cattle in good order and the Saints desirous of moving. the cows came up for our Company and in the afternoon Elder Wheelock came with a large Compy of Saints and camp’d a short distance from us[.] in the evening we visited his camp and found the Saints well.

11th. Rose at 4 took breakfast[.] got the cattle up and about 8 all started[.] passed Elder Wheelock’s camp[.] found the road very bad worse than ever[.] I had seen them about 2[.] we stopped for dinner and moved on again[.] the road still bad[.] passed through day_____ where some of the Saints bought some provisions and camped 3 miles beyond[.] found plenty of good feed and water[.] arrived about 7[.] I and Bro. Wilson went on watch from 9 to 12[.] travelled 13 miles.

12. Sunday a fine day. Bro. Gates gave orders to prepare to travel and at 8 we started[.] the roads were better[.] the greater part of the journey was across praries[.] plenty of feed all along[.] in the evening we reached Spring Town and camped[.] this morning one of the Brethren had an ox die and during the day a few small accidents happened with the waggons[.] we travelled about 14 miles

13th. rose about 4 and went to watch the cattle[.] it was a fine morning. about 8 Bro. Wheelocks company of 50 waggons passed us and at 9 we started and soon over took them and travelled close to gether[.] we were detained some time during the day[.] the country was fine and at 12 we passed the town of Troy and 2 miles beyond we camped for 1 hour[.] before this we had passed Bro. Wheelocks Compy and at 6 we stayed for the night______plenty of feed and water in an open country[.] travelled 8 miles

14th. Fine morning[.] we arose about 3 Oclock and started at 6[.] Elder Wheelock’s Compy following close up[.] we travelled about 3 miles and had to make a bridge[.] the old one had fallen down[.] Elder Gates called for all the men that could be spared to help build it[.] this day the roads were a little better[.] the country was mostly inclosed[.] the soil appeared very rich[.] we camped about 11[.] took some provisions and started about 1. the roads this afternoon were not so good[.] arrived in Drakeville about 4[.] the roads from three miles were very bad through a timber country and from our last camping ground 14 miles[.] very scarce of water but here was plenty of water[,] wood and feed. the saints were all well and in good spirits.

15th. arose at 3 and started on our journey[.] fine weather and beautiful scenery but an uneven road and large hills. about 1 we stopped and took refreshment and fed and watered the cattle[.] about 5 we came to Union Ville and at ½ past 5 a heavy storm came on[.] at this place descending to Soap Creek is a very large hill to go down[.] the worst I ever saw for waggons and the rain made it very bad for travelling. By the assistance of Bro. Gates who labored hard we all go[t] down safe but we were all wet through[.] there was plenty of feed and water[.] this evening I had to watch the cattle till 9 oclock[.] travelled 13 miles.

16th. A small rain fell but afterwards it cleared off. Got the cattle up and started. About 9 we had to rise a large hill very difficult to get up[.] we all got up safe[.] for a short distance there was plenty of wood and the road uneven but it afterwards got better[.] Plenty of grass water and wood[.] pitched our tents and took supper[.] This evening I and Bro. Wilson went on watch from 8 to 11[.] all was safe and our cattle doing well

17th. rose at 4[.] it was a fine morning and we started on our journey[.] about 8 some of the Brethren lost their cattle but afterwards found them[.] the scene on our journey was beautiful[.] plenty of grass but good roads. travelled about 7 miles and stayed for dinner[.] plenty of water in the creek[.] at 2 we started again[.] the roads much the same and plenty of grass but short of water[.] about 12 miles from our last camping place[.] we travelled 4 miles further and came to a small creek but no wood within less than 2 miles[.] camped for the night[.] 5 waggons were not able to reach and camped 5 miles off[.] the watch was set[.] took supper and went to bed[.] travelled 16 miles.

18. rose at ½ past 3[.] found the cattle all safe and doing well[.] the morning was fine and delightful scenery all around[.] went on watch from ½ past 4 to 7 and at 9 we started[.] good roads but in some places uneven[.] not much wood or water but grass in abundance. the teams were in good order. we came to_____ about 7 miles from our last camp-ing ground[.] passed through the town and travelled 4 miles further and found a creek and plenty of good wood and water and grass[.] around about 4 got wood water and made a fire and had tea after which the sisters went a washing[.] All in good health and spirits both man and animals[.] traveled 11 miles.

19 Sunday[.] rose at 5. found the Cattle safe. Beautiful weather. the Brethern and Sisters spent their time in washing clothes and at 2 we started on our journey. the road was beautiful[.] short of timber and water difficult to get[.] we went along first rate and we stayed about 7 miles from our last camping place[.] here there was plenty of water but not much wood and feed.

20th. Got up at 4[.] watered the cattle[.] took breakfast and at ½ past 7 started on our journey. it was a fine morning and at 12 we stopped 7 miles from the last camp ground. plenty of wood and water[.] stayed 2 hours[.] fed the cattle and travelled 7 miles further and camped ‘mongst plenty of wood and water in a large creek[.] arrived about 6 oclock[.] took su[p]per[.] all in good health[.] travelled 14 miles.

21st. Rose at 4[.] found the cattle safe[.] took breakfast and started at 8. fine weather and the_______ roads very good[.] plenty of wood but water scarce. passed a few houses[.] stayed at 12 about 7 miles on the journey. plenty of water but no wood[.] Here sister Davis’s [Juliana E. Davies] child [William Davies] was buried near the Creek. started again at 2 Oclock[.] about a mile from where we stayed there was plenty of wood and water. We travelled about 13 miles further passing near neither wood or water all the way. stayed by a large creek leading from Grand River[.] found plenty of wood water and grass[.] took supper and went to bed at 10. travelled 20 miles.

22nd. rose at 4[.] cattle were all right[.] the weather was rather cold[.] started at 8. road not quite so good today. arrived at Mount Pisaugh [?] [Pisgah] about 12. here the Saints stayed where they were driven from Na[u]voo. the road just here is very bad[.] there is a large and dangerous hill to go down. We stopped on the other side of the creek, another branch from Grand River. plenty of wood water. this was 7 miles from our last Camp Ground. We crossed the same Creek 3 times and in one place had to make a bridge and camped about 4 miles from this creek. plenty of wood and water. this day one of the Brethern the tongue of his waggon [sentence unfinished] all the other teams came along safe. the Cattle were in good order[.] camped about 6. it rained at 10 this morning and continued for some hours and all got wet through[.] we travelled 12 miles.

23rd. The weather was fine. I went on watch from 2 till 5[.] the cattle were all right and we started about 8 and travelled 12 miles as there was no water between here and a large creek that flows from Grand River[.] we stayed here for the night[.] about 6 Bro. Constantine who broke down the day before came into camp[.] there was plenty of wood water and feed and all well and in first rate spirits.

24th. Rose at 4 and had orders to start at 7 as Bro. Wheelocks Comp[an]y had come up and Campd on the other side of the Creek[.] they were all well. the roads for about 12 miles from here is pritty good[.] at 12 we stayed for dinner by a small creek[.] plenty of wood water and grass[.] started again on an uneven road[.] came to some small creeks with very narrow bridges and one waggon was capsized right into the creek[.] a child was in it but took no hurt. a few miles further on was another bad place and in crossing the bridge one of the cattle got off but took no just [.] at this Bridge Elder Gates paid 3½ dollars for our Compy to cross. got over safe and camped for the night[.] had a very heavy storm during the afternoon and all got wet through[.] the sisters rejoiced though they had to pull off their shoes and stockings and wade through the water[.] this day travelled 25 miles

25th. Rained heavy but afterwards cleared off[.] some of our waggons were 4 miles off[.] Bro. Gates ordered us to get ready and at 9 we started[.] the road was very bad for about 12 miles and bad places to cross[.] stayed about 7 miles on the way[.] plenty of wood and water[.] a large creek to cross and a very bad place[.] stopped about an hour and went on again[.] the road got better. About 8 we came to wood water and feed and campd about 10[.] the rest of our compy came up[.] all well and in good spirits[.] travelled 20 miles

26th. Sunday morning[.] arose about 5[.] fine weather but rather windy[.] the cattle all safe and doing well in a first rate camping place for water and feed. Spent the morning in attending to the cattle[.] took dinner and at 3 started out. 3 miles of good road when we came to a large creek and a bad place to cross[.] forded the creek[.] it was about 18 inches deep[.] we all got over safe and campd on the other side and make our fires[.] I had to stand guard from ½ past 5 to 8 this evening[.] travelled only 3 miles.

27th. rose at 4 and went to see to the herd[.] all safe[.] took breakfast and started at 7[.] the roads for about 12 miles was very good[.] plenty of grass but wood and water scarce till we came to a creek 10 miles off with a good bridge to cross it[.] wood water and grass in abundance[.] stopped here to feed the Cattle and take refreshment[.] started about 2[.] good road for 8 miles but no water or wood but plenty of grass[.] Came to the River East Ishnebotney [Nishnabotna River] about 2 ft. deep[.] we forded it and all come over safe[.] travelled a short distance and crossed another river 18 inches deep[.] forded it[.] near this river is Indian Town where the Indians formerly ______ camped about ½ mile from the town[.] plenty of wood water and grass[.] travelled 20 miles.

28th. rose about 4[.] fine morning and the cattle all right[.] started at 7. had road for 8 miles[.] some creeks with light built bridges over them to cross[.] our Cattle were not able to draw the waggons out of some of the mud holes[.] stopped about 2 for dinner near a large grove about 16 miles from the last camp ground[.] plenty of wood water and grass. started and travelled about 7 miles further and came to the West Ishnebotney River by about 7 Oclock and ferried over it[.] Bro. Gates taking an active part[.] all got over safe and campd[.] we were all well but very tired[.] there was plenty of wood water and grass[.] we travelled 26 miles[.] I went on watch from 8 to 11

29. rose at 4[.] took breakfast and started at 8[.] the roads were bad for several miles and several of the wagons got stuck in the mud as there were some very swamy places and creeks to cross[.] travelled about 7 miles and came to Silver Creek[.] watered the cattle and crossed the creek and at 5 we came to another creek[.] plenty of water and feed but no wood[.] we campd here for the night[.] this creek lies about 13 miles from the Bluffs City [Council Bluffs. the teams all came up and all the saints were well[.] travelled about 15 miles[.] took supper and went to bed.

30th. rose at 4. Bro. Gates sent me to see if the cattle were all right[.] I found they were[.] it was a fine morning and we started about 8[.] after travelling several miles we came to a creek and stayed about an hour for dinner[.] started again and had bad roads for several miles[.] about 5 we came to Bluffs City[.] passed through one end of it and campd in a meadow[.] the Danish Saints were also camping here[.] they were all well and happy[.] travelled about 10 miles.

July 1st. 1853[.] Had a very heavy storm[.] rained in torrents and during the night the oxen strayed off belonging to Bro. Gates. I took the horse and found them after a 6 hours search[.] this day spent a portion of the time in going down to the Levey [levee] to get our luggage and in fixing our waggons[.] got most of it done by sun down and went to bed tired out

2nd. Rose at 4[.] it was a beautiful morning[.] This day Elders Haight, Young, Wheelock and others came into camp[.] generally well in health and spirits[.] this day we spent in attending to the cattle and fixing waggons for the journey[.] all at peace.

3rd. Sunday[.] fine morning[.] Bro. Gates oxen strayed again for he could not get the guard to do their duty[.] I and Bro. John Wilson took a horse each and travelled some time and found them all safe. About 10 Elder Gates called a meeting and addressed it[.] his remarks were very good in encouraging the Brethren to do their duty when on guard[.] he said if the Brethren would not do their duty when on watch he would leave them on the ground and he should not go home with the camp to Zion and gave them to understand that if they did not do their duty on the plains he would leave them there to do their best[.] he was followed by Elder Haight[.] his remarks were about the same. Elder [John] Lyon was appointed Chapl[a]in of the Company[.] he was also appointed Captn of hundred and Bro. Morris Captn of fifty[.] at one Elder Gates closed the meeting by prayer[.] in the afternoon I and Bro. Welsh attended a meeting at Bro. Wheelocks Camp[.] they were close by us[.] the Brethren spoke in tongues and interpretations was given by one of the Sisters[.] this was a first rate meeting[.] at 7 I and Bro. John Wilson went on watch till 11. Elder Gates held a meeting this evening which caused the Saints to rejoice[.] went to bed about 1

4th. Fine morning[.] went out to the cattle and found them safe and after breakfast Bro. Gates informed me he believed I could go to the valley with Bro Cooks family from London[.] he desired me to see Bro Cook[.] I went and made arrangements to go with him[.] he agreed to give me one English Sover[e]ign for my trouble[.] I took my things along and was very kindly received[.] Bro. Gates was very kind to me[.] This day being the 4th of July the inhabitants of Bluff City had a public dinner. I went to the City for a short time and rejoiced to see the people so happy[.] returned to camp and went to Bro. Cooks to see the cattle[.] they were all safe[.] had a heavy storm this evening[.] much rain wind thunder and lightening[.] this evening slept with Bro. Cook in the tent

5th. rose at 5[.] the cattle were all scattered about[.] ours were safe[.] it was a beautiful morning[.] I went to the city with one of Bro. Cooks family and returned to Camp

8th. nothing important transpired the last few days attended our teams etc. this day Bro. Gates gave orders for us to start for the ferry by 3 Oclock as the Danish Brethren had all crossed the [Missouri] River and he was desirous for us to be across as soon as possible[.] he compacted with Mr. Brown the Ferryman for 1½ Dollars.

10th. Sunday we commenced to cross our waggons[.] before we could cross the river we had to go through a very bad slough about ½ mile long up to our middle in mud and water[.] we only got one wagon over for it was almost impossible to get along at all.

11th[.] rose at 4 and got our axes and cut down all the timber that was in the way[.] the day before we cut down about a mile along the river side and got 8 waggons across.

12th & 13th. We got the rest of our waggons over the river all safe[.] the weather continued fine.

14th. & 15th. We got our cattle over the river[.] the last few days I and several Brethren had to wade through mud and water nearly all the time yet we are all well and in good spirits[.] I will here mention that many of our Brethren stayed behind in Kanesville.

16th. Elder Gates gave orders for us to start on our journey[.] we did so about 9[.] the roads were very uneven for several miles[.] there is plenty of grass and about 7 miles on the road we watered our cattle[.] traveled till about 8 and came to a small creek with a good bridge over it[.] plenty of wood and water[.] traveled 15 miles[.] had a heavy thunder storm.

17th. Sunday[.] fine weather and the cattle all safe[.] started and traveled to a creek called Popeah [Papillon.] stayed here for dinner[.] plenty of wood and water but uneven roads[.] we campd near a creek with a bridge over it but not a good one[.] traveled 18 miles

18th. Cattle all safe and the weather fine[.] the roads a little better[.] stayed for dinner but there was no wood or water[.] traveled on to the Elk Horn River[.] had several hills to descend and campd by the river side[.] this is the worst place I ever saw for masquitos [mosquitoes] for our tents were swarmed[.] this day traveled 11 miles.

19th. rose at 4 and started at 8[.] travelled on to the Elk Horn Ferry[.] there is a very large hill to descend before you get to the ferry which is very difficult for teams. I, Bro Wilson, Thistle, [Charles] Welsh and others worked on the Brat[.] they charged 1 dollar each Waggon[.] we all got over in 3 hours and started and traveled 11 miles and campd[.] neither wood or water but there was a small rain and a heavy dew[.] went to bed quite refreshed for we felt the Lord had blessed us in providing for our cattle.

20th. Fine morning but there had been rain in the night and we had plenty of water for our use as Sister Lawrence had placed a dish under the tent and it got nearly full[.] this served for Breakfast[.] the road this morning was rather Bog[g]y. we traveled 9 miles and came to water on the left hand of the road[.] stayed for dinner[.] started again about 3 and met with a comp[an]y of men from California bound for the states. The roads were so bad that several of the wagons got stuck in the mud[.] traveled about 11 miles from where we dined and found plenty of wood and water[.] the water had over flowed and some of the teams could not reach camp that night[.] we campd near the River Platt[e.] I went on watch from 8 to ½ past 12[.] traveled 20 miles.

21st. Fine morning[.] started about 9 Oclock[.] the brethren that were left behind came up with us[.] the roads were better today[.] traveled close to the fork of the River for about a mile[.] at 1 we stayed for dinner close by a pool of water on the left hand side of the road[.] started about 3 and about ½ past 4 came close by the River _________ [Loup] Fork and had to Ferry. Bro. C.H. Wheelocks Comp[an]y were being ferried over[.] they were all well and got over the same night.

[2]2nd. I was appointed to help get the wagons over the river. Bro. Welsh was Capn of the men[.] we commenced about ½ past 3 in the morning and got all over by 11. I might here remark that the 2nd load we ferried over we got stuck in the sand[.] I and the Brethren had to get into the water up to our middle in sand and water[.] it was quick sand and we got the boat over safe[.] took dinner and started again and came to water after traveling about 15 Miles[.] wood about ½ mile off the road on the right hand side[.] this was a bad place for musquitos[.] some of the Brethren could not sleep and were all full of pimples from their bites.

23d. Fine morning[.] started about 8[.] our cattle all safe and in good order and the roads better[.] traveled about 10 miles and came to some large bluffs on the left of the road[.] for a mile we had to assend [ascend] a large and difficult hill the road composed of loose sand[.] we all got up safe and campd on the other side of the hill[.] here is a low place and water for cattle on the left of the road[.] started again on a good road and traveled 8 miles further and stayed for the night[.] had plenty of wood water and feed[.] traveled 18 or 20 miles.

24th. Sunday. Fine morning[.] spent the day in washing &c. I & Bro Cook and [Joseph] Lilly cut down wood to make an ox yoke[.] at 3 we held a meeting. Elders Lyon, [Richard E.] Waddington and Gates addressed the Saints and gave excellent teaching which caused us to rejoice[.] wrote out my journal[.] here is 3 graves close to our camp on the right[.] most of the saints felt worn out for the want of rest as many had not slept for several nights owing to the mosquetos but the Lord sent an East Wind and blew them away and we got a good nights rest[.] I went on watch from ½ past 6 till 5 in the morning.

24th. of July in Bro. Green’s Company[.] campd for the night ½ mile further on[.] this is about 8 miles from our last camping place[.] plenty of grass around and water both sides but no wood.

25th. Fine morning[.] came off watch at 5[.] cattle all doing well[.] there were several woves around during our watch and we heard them howl quite near[.] we started at 8 on a good road but it got bad being much cut up and several large hills difficult to ascend, the road being composed of white sand. Travelled 11 miles and came to water on the right. Stayed for dinner and started about 3 oclock[.] had several large mud holes to cross[.] passed the grave of a Sister on the left of the road burried

26th. Fine morning and the cattle all safe[.] started about 8 and at 9 Bro. George Horsefall [Horsfall] died, he had been ill some weeks and was unable to stand the fatigue of the journey[.] belonged to Paddington Branch London Confc [Conference.] aged 45[.] he was interred about 9 miles from our last camp ground on the left hand side[.] about 2 miles from there stood 3 trees in a row about ¼ of a mile from each other and close by the grave is a beautiful running water-—according to the testimony of the Brethren he was a man who had suffered much persecution in the Branch he came from and had proved himself a good and faithful saint on the journey[.] Elders Gates and Lyon officiated at his interrment [internment.] the road today the same as yesterday having to ascend large hills and sometimes up to the axles in sand. Traveled 7 miles further and came to a creek of beautiful water[.] a large stream with steep banks on both sides and very difficult to ford[.] we got over safe and campd at 7 Oclock[.] no wood[.] traveled 16 miles.

27th. Fine morning[.] Cattle all right and started at ½ past 7. better road[.] travelled 12 miles through several mud holes[.] some of the wagons got stuck[.] about 2 we came to Wood Creek. Bro. Wheelock was camping there and we campd close by[.] they were all well[.] there was plenty of wood water and feed[.] visited the other camp in the evening.

28th. Rainy but cleared off fine. Bro. Wheelocks train left at 8. but we stayed till 4 as the feed was so good to rest the cattle[.] had a good road but steep to cross[.] we stayed by the side of Wood Creek[.] plenty of feed and water but no wood[.] this part of the Creek lies about 10 miles from our last camp ground[.] went on watch from 8 to ½ past 12 Oclock[.] this morning Bro. [David] Davidson died and was buried on a small hill close by where we campd[.] he was 75 years old both lame and blind and quite helpless[.] he was Baptized on the ship “International” and was not much known amongst the saints--

29th. Fine morning[.] we were cheered by meeting a Compty [Company] of Brethren on missions to England[.] they stayed with us 2 hours and gave us some good encouragement[.] we overtook Elder Wheelock as they were crossing the river[.] we all got over safe and traveled on[.] had a good road and at 9 at night came to water on the left of the road and campd ½ a mile from Bro. Wheelocks Compy[.] Amongst the Brethren going on missions was Bro. G.D. Ross. Went on watch from 9 to ½ past 12[.] travelled 20 miles.

30th. Started at 8 and saw some Indians for the first time[.] there were 12 of them and quite civil[.] Elder Wheelock started an hour before us and took the old road and we the new one which was much nearer[.] we passed them about 16 miles from our last camp[.] we crossed several creeks and bad places[.] came to Elm Creek at 5 and campd. Plenty of wood and water. Traveled 4 miles further and campd for the night[.] this day we passed several companies going to California[.] traveled 23 miles

31st. Very Foggy[.] started at 6 and traveled 4 miles and passed Elder Fosgreen’s [John E. Forsgren’s] Camp[.] traveled 4 miles further and Campd for the Day close to Buffaloe [Buffalo] Creek[.] plenty of water wood and feed[.] this day went to a Buffaloe shot by one of Elder Shirtliff’s [Vincent Shurtleff’s] Compy and brought away a few pounds with me[.] it was the first I ever saw[.] It lay about 3 miles from the camp[.] the saints were well and glad of a little rest. Held a meeting at 4 and was much cheered by the addresses of Elders Lyon, Gates, Waddington and Bro. Fosgreen [Forsgren] who also spoke[.] we felt much refreshed in body and mind[.] after tea several of us met together in the tent and spent the evening in singing[.] while holding our meeting Bro. Fosgreen’s Compy passed us[.] traveled 8 miles.

August 1st. Fine morning[.] the cattle all safe[.] started at 8[.] travelled 3½ miles and crossed a small creek[.] travelled several miles along Buffaloe Creek and at 8 miles crossed it over a Bridge[.] found plenty of wood and water[.] about ¼ mile from the creek is a grave of a Brother that died in Claudius [V.] Spencers Compy named Joseph Chambers[.] about ½ mile further is the grave of James Fast who was shot while on guard[.] do not know if he was a saint or not[.] travelled on for 8 hours and Campd for dinner[.] no wood or water to depended on[.] the road is good but several bad creeks to cross[.] this afternoon passed the graves of 2 more Brethren[.] do not recol[l]ect their names[.] had a heavy storm[.] rained in torrents[.] travelled 7 miles further and campd for the night[.] plenty of water on the right of the road[.] travelled 15 miles

2nd. Fine morning[.] on guard from ½ past 12 to 5. had a cold night[.] the cattle were all safe[.] started at ½ past 7[.] good road[.] crossed several dry creeks[.] the beautiful range of hills we have seen for the last few days have disappeared[.] we now come in sight of the River Platt[e.] travelled 10 miles and campd for dinner[.] no water[.] started again and found water 1 mile on the road to the left[.] again sighted some hills[.] travelled on and came close by the bluffs and towards night crossed them[.] they were hard on the cattle the sand being very deep and loose[.] passed through the bluffs and came close by the Platt[e] and campd for the night. On the other side of the river are Beautiful mountain[s] and an island in the river[.] Splendid scenery. This day traveled 22 miles.

3rd. About midnight there came a heavy storm. Arose at 5. Fine morning[.] no timber here and at 6, 4 Buffaloes came in sight[.] the first we had seen on the journey[.] I and about 8 Brethren started with our guns and 4 men who were on the road for California[.] these men acted well and after chasing them for about 1 hour we killed one[.] another appeared in sight[.] we chased him for miles and killed him[.] they were both brought down to the camp and divided amongst the Saints[.] this was the first Buffaloe hunt I was ever in[.] we started at 1 and traveled by the river for several miles still having the range of Bluffs on the right of the road[.] the road very sandy[.] traveled 9 miles and came to a beautiful creek of water and Campd. Wood about 1 mile off on the left[.] this afternoon a company of emigrants returning from California passed us. The child [Rebecca Thirkell] of Bro. Thistle [John Pinnock Thirkell] of Leicester died.

4th. Fine weather and the cattle safe[.] could see several buffalow feeding on the range of hills on the right[.] started at ½ past 7. traveled 3 miles and came close by the Bluffs[.] traveled by them all day[.] the roads were very bad with loose sand which tired the oxen very much[.] Stopped for dinner about 2. at the Cold Springs the water is very beautiful. There are 2 springs 300 yards from each other[.] Started again and came to Carrying [Carrion] Creek beautiful running water but no wood. About 4 miles from the Cold Springs the road is a little better as we leave the Bluffs to the right. Elder Haight passed us just as we started[.] he was quite well and reported Elder Wheelocks Compy 10 miles from us. Yesterday morning Bro. John Butlers little boy [David Butler] aged 7 years was trying to hang on the tent pole which was placed along side the waggon[.] he let go his hold and the wheel went over his back[.] there was 2400 lbs in it[.] we administerd to him and he was healed to the astonishment of all that saw it. The Wife of Bro. Harker [James Hawkins] gave birth to a male child [Eli Brazee Hawkins.] we stopped and campd for the night at this creek[.] travelled 16 miles.

5th. Rather a dull morning. The cattle all safe[.] started at a ¼ to 8[.] road rather boggy for 1 mile[.] runs close to the river for 10 miles but no wood and have not had any since we left Elm Creek[.] we then came to mud creek[.] came near the water and campd for dinner[.] started again[.] very bad road this afternoon and some bad creeks to cross. I think 5 in number. We were crossing the 3rd when one of our oxen was thrown down and his leg got over the chain but not hurt much though his head was under water for some time. Camped about 9 and went on watch till 12. traveled this day 16 miles.

6th. Fine morning[.] started about 8. good road for a short time till we came to the Fair Sandy Bluffs. We travelled 8 miles and came to the North Fork about 8 rods wide and 2 ft. deep[.] we forded it in a good sandy bottom and campd for dinner[.] started again and left the river to the left[.] travelled over the Bluffs till we came to the regular road which is very much cut up and bad to travel and at 7 we came to West Bluffs and campd[.] good water and feed but no wood. the water lies on the left of the road. at 9 a storm came on which continued for several hours[.] it thundered and lightened dreadfully[.] it tore the waggon cover and shattered the carpet bag with its contents belonging to Bro. Harmon[.] the saints felt rather frightened[.] we went to bed about ½ past 10. traveled 16 miles.

7th. Sunday. fine clear morning[.] through the storm the oxen scattered but none were lost. Wrote out my journel[.] the report of many of the Brethren and Sisters this morning was that they were struck last night by the lightening some in the legs arms and head but felt thankful to the Lord that through his powerful aid they had been preserved from serious dangers[.] spent the day in various ways some drying clothes & c[.] at ½ past 4 we held a meeting and were addressed by several of the Elders. Elder Gates said he felt truly happy that we had so successfully come so far in so short a time[.] a great deal of wise council fell from his lips[.] he said he hoped to be in the valley at the general Conference. Oct. 6th 1853 with all his company[.] this day did not travel at all

8th. Fine weather[.] oxen safe[.] started about ½ past 7[.] commenced on low sandy bluffs[.] crossed several large hills[.] In the hollow is plenty of water for cattle[.] crossed Bluff Creek. at 10 we crossed other large hills and passed Elder Fosgreen’s [Forsgren’s] Company[.] travelled 2 miles and stayed for dinner[.] Started again[.] came to a large hill and descended it[.] the worst place I ever saw[.] just room for one team to go down at a time[.] a beautiful creek of water at the bottom and all got down safe and traveled onward[.] about 7 we came to Pixcuinane [?] Creek and campd for the night[.] here are 3 fine springs of water and fine feed[.] had another storm. Elder Fosgreens Compy passed us about ½ past 7. we were so tormented with the Mosquito[e]s that we could not sleep[.] travelled 15 miles.

9th. Fine weather[.] cattle all safe[.] started about 8. travelled ½ a mile and came to the grave of one of the danish Brethren[.] ¼ mile further is a beautiful creek 16 ft. wide 1 ft. deep. we travelled over sandy bluffs and crossed several creeks and about 5 mud holes which are difficult to get through[.] about 1 we came to Rattle Snake Creek[.] 10 miles[.] beautiful running water and plenty of feed[.] while taking dinner quite a number of Indians came up nicely dressed and quite civil[.] travelled on 5 miles and campd for the night about ½ mile from Camp Creek. the Danish Saints stayed.

10th. Fine weather but cold[.] went on guard from ½ past 12 to 5[.] I saw a large body of Indians on horseback well dressed and very civil[.] started at ½ to 8. passed the Danish Camp[.] crossed Camp Creek[.] a little beyond this is a piece of boggy ground[.] the road for some distance is good[.] afterward came to low sandy bluffs[.] crossed a small creek about 7 miles from where we started[.] it has a large descent[.] left it[.] To the right is some large Bluffs of rock having the appearance of old ruins[.] this continues for about 3 miles[.] travelled on about 7 miles and campd for dinner near Wolf Creek[.] started again and crossed the creek[.] it runs at the foot of a large sandy hill which we had to cross[.] it is difficult to ascend and we had to double teams[.] we all got over safe and continued our journey[.] had a bad road and sandy for a long distance[.] we came to plenty of rock bluffs and after travelling about 6 miles came to a small creek 6 ft. wide[.] campd for the night and were much tormented by Mosquitoes[.] travelled 15 miles.

11th. Fine morning[.] started at 8 on a good road and beautiful scenery on both sides. there was a beautiful island in the river abreast of us covered with timber[.] the Loan [Lone] Tree is now cut down which is the only tree on the route for 200 miles[.] passed several creeks and ash hollow[.] by the left of the river is plenty of timber[.] we came to castle creek 16 miles from where we started and campd for dinner[.] Bro. Thistles [John Thirkell’s] little girl [Mary Agnes] died and was buried near this creek[,] aged 6 years[.] we started again about 2[.] the road for 1 mile is on low sandy bluffs[.] we passed by a small creek on the left of the road[.] good water[.] there are no more creeks for over 20 miles[.] we travelled on and saw a compy of Californians on the south side of the river and about 6 we turned off the road which is good toward the river and campd. for the night[.] plenty of good feed[.] this is about 9 miles from our last camp[.] travelled about 20 miles.

12th. a small rain fell[.] cattle all safe[.] started at 8[.] travelled close to the river for several miles and came to about 1 mile of heavy sandy road[.] many of the teams were not able to get along[.] some stuck for a long time[.] passed over these sand and came to the road we left on the north side of the river[.] crossed a small sandy hill and campd for dinner close by the river[.] Elder Gates sent some cattle to help the others along[.] started again at 2 Oclock[.] the road for a short distance is good[.] we then descend a large sand hill from the top of which the ground slopes[.] plenty of rock[.] road composed of heavy sand and short patches of timber on the south side of the river[.] At 5 we came to a wide creek though not deep but bad for teams[.] we all crossed safely and came to Crab Creek[.] a good stream of water good to cross and good feed[.] a quarter of a mile further is a Lake[.] the ground is very swampy[.] campd for the night[.] travelled 18 miles.

13th. Fine morning but looked like rain[.] started at 8[.] road good for a short distance[.] At places low sandy Bluffs[.] travelled about 6 miles and came to a wide dry creek[.] the Bluffs here look grand. travelled round a large Bluff and crossed it and ascended a large sandy hill[.] to see the fragments of rocky bluffs and hills all around is a grand sight[.] some have the appearances of ancient castles & on this hill we came in sight of Chimney Rock at a great distance on the South of the River[.] it has the appearance of an old church at this distance. we descend the hill and cross another dry creek[.] now pass between two hills and cross another dry creek and fine scenery[.] came to a hard road and heavy sand which tried our cattle[.] travelled about 9 miles from our last evenings camp and came to a large lake of water on the south of the road[.] campd for dinner and started again at 3[.] the road much the same at many places[.] low sandy bluffs. we passed a large lake on the south of the road[.] the Danish Compy campd here and about 1 mile further we came to the river. Good camping place[.] beautiful clear water[.] went on watch from 8 to ½ past 12[.] had a great many wolves and wild beasts around us[.] travelled 18 miles.

14th. Sunday. Fine morning. Cattle all safe[.] stayed here for the day[.] held a council meeting[.] business over by 3 Oclock and at 6 held another meeting[.] Elders Lyon, Waddington & Gates were present and imparted much interesting matter to us. we all rejoiced. the Danes passed us in the morning.

15th. found the Cattle safe[.] started at 8 and found the road good for 10 miles & beautiful scenery[.] travelled 11 miles and campd for dinner close by the river[.] across it on the south side is a beautiful rock[.] on the north side it has the appearance of being supported by pillars, about 20 yards off is another one but not so large as the first is round and looks like the ruins of some Castle, next is a range of rugged rocks and a little above this is Chimney Rock[.] they all join together the body of Chimney Rock. Looks like the body of a church at a distance and the top part like the spire. on the North side are 5 other rocks and on the north of the River is a range of rugged rocks and stand-before them are small Hills[.] we came to the river about 4 miles from Chimney Rock and Campd[.] plenty of water and feed[.] travelled 20 miles.

16th. The morning fine and the weather hot. Cattle all safe, started at 8[.] we now have a good view of the “Rock”[.] it and other rocks represent a small village[.] on the north side of the hill is sloping and covered with grass and trees[.] Along side this is a range of hills or rugged rocks[.] by the river are a few scattered trees and on its north side is a range of Bluffs[.] we travelled till we c[a]me to a small creek on the South side of the River & started again along side the Bluffs. good road of hard gravel[.] we now leave Chimney Rock in the distance[.] the rugged rocks continue for some miles then between some Bluffs covered with grass. this continues for about 3 miles then commences rugged rocks which continue till we come to Scotch Bluffs which lie in the distance on the East side[.] these Bluffs have the appearance of some Ancient Castles upheld by 4 pillars on the south side, 3 Pillars. the appearance from here is beautiful[.] on the north of the river is a range of low Bluffs[.] travelled till about 8 and Campd for the night by the river side[.] travelled about 21 miles and passed the Danish Saints about 1 mile further.

17th. Fair clear morning[.] cattle all safe[.] started at 8[.] passed some Banks covered with Ceders and came near Scotch Bluffs[.] there is another range of Bluffs beyond. came on to Spring Creek in the south of the road and campd for dinner. The large Bluffs soon cease and low Bluffs commence, afterward high rocky bluffs. the Bluffs on the North side. the River begin to rise as we pass along the road[.] for a short distance a few sandy Bluffs[.] heavy travelling. A large party of Indians visited us[.] they were camping near Scotts Bluffs[.] they live in the rocks[.] we came to good feed but not much water and campd for the night[.] travelled 16 miles[.] went on guard from ½ past 12 to 5.

18th. Came off guard. cattle all safe[.] had a great number of wolves round us while on guard[.] it was a fine morning. started at ½ past 7[.] good road all the way except 3 miles of sandy Bluffs. the Bluffs on the south side are rather low. we afterward crossed them[.] we then neared the river which is full of islands, all covered with trees[.] road now leads by the side of the river. at this point is a large projecting rock[.] now travel near the foot of the Bluffs for several miles and campd for dinner at Spring Creek Bluffs. this is about 200 yards from the road on the south. good water. the small islands in the river look beautiful[.] started about 3 and travelled round the Bluffs and came on low sandy ground and heavy travelling[.] on the south of the road is plenty of young timber and on the islands. the large hills on the south of the river lay at a great distance[.] The Bluffs on the north are very high and have the appearance of lime stone. we travelled at the foot of the Bluffs for a long distance[.] passed the Danish Saints[.] now travelled on the side of the Bluffs on a good road. descended and came into the bottom for water and travelled on till 8 when we Campd. just before we came here tens of thousands of grasshoppers made their appearance. Bro. King saw them came down like rain[.] the waggons and tents were covered with them[.] they came on our beds and tea table[.] and there is plenty of wood and water on the south of the road[.] travelled 23 miles[.] this place is about 17 mile[s] from Laramie.

19th. Fair weather[.] cattle all safe[.] about 7 we had another heavy swarm of grasshoppers[.] at this time everything is covered and millions in the air[.] they have the appearance of snow in the air[.] we never saw such a wonderful sight before. the Danish Camp passed us again[.] we started at ½ past 7[.] the road for several miles good. Bluffs on each side[.] the river is low[.] we now came to some heavy sand[.] hard on the teams[.] this sandy road continues for miles. Plenty of timber on the river side[.] there is one lone tree-—very old-—only one branch on it-—in full leaf-—pointing to the west-—on the south of the road. about ten the grasshoppers appeared in cloud and took a south east course[.] we could see them in the distance like clouds of smoke[.] the road continues bad[.] we campd for dinner just before we came to dry creek[.] the Danes were campd there[.] the road nearly all the rest of the day was heavy[.] near Dry Creek on the south of the River is Indian Town[.] many of the Indians came over[.] Elder Fosgreens Compy Campd here[.] it is now dark[.] travelled about 2 hours in the dark and campd near Fort Laramie[.] all well as well as the Cattle[.] plenty of water but poor feed[.] we were all tired

20th. Rose at 5[.] Fine morning and splendid scenery[.] Bluffs on each side of the river[.] this morning we heard a large gun fired at the Fort[.] the indians visited us[.] we started at 7[.] very sandy road and heavy travelling[.] traveled 3 miles and came to the river side[.] we forded it and got all over safe by 11 Oclock. we then entered Fort Laramie consisting of a few wooden houses and about 67 soldiers stationed[.] it lies on the hollow high Bluffs[.] all round they have 6 pieces of cannon and all seem very happy[.] there are stores here where we can purchase anything we need but very high[.] flour 15 dollars a sack[.] we now leave the Fort and ascend a large hill very high and large mountains all round[.] travelled a few miles and campd for dinner[.] poor food and no water[.] the Indians again visited us[.] we now draw near the Black Hills[.] these hills are very large and covered with timber[.] this afternoon we crossed a very deep dry creek[,] steep banks on both sides[.] then descend a large hill and draw near the river and campd for the night[.] travelled 7 miles from Laramie[.] poor food[.] the large shower of grasshoppers did much good as they distroyed nearly all the Mosquitoes which before troubled us much which was a blessing.

21th[st]. Sunday[.] little rain during the night but a fine morning[.] spent the time in washing and several indians visited us during the day[.] in the afternoon held a meeting opened by Elder Lyon. Elder Gates addressed us for about an hour and caused us all to rejoice after which business was put over as Elder Gates thought it would be wise to divide the company in 2 parts[.] it was moved and seconded that Elders [Richard E.] Wad[d]ington and Thistle [Thirkell] take charge of the Independant Compy and as many more as deemed wisdom and that Elder Gates and Mois [Jonathan Moyes] bring on the remainder of the L10 Company[.] Elder Gates gave some excellent council to all the Captains[.] at 8 I had to go on watch[.] the cattle were drove over on the south side the river[.] we had to ford on horses[.] the current was very strong so as to render it impossible to cross otherwise. I, Bro. Wilson, Thistle and 7 others took our Blankets so as when our time was up we slept on the ground[.] the remainder of the night a great many wolves were near us but we were preserved.

22nd. Came off guard at 5[.] the cattle all doing well[.] forded the river again on horses and took breakfast[.] Elder Fosgreens Compy moved on before us[.] we started about 10 with 16 waggons and Elder Waddington President[.] we now leave the camp and ascend the commencement of Black Hills and descended on to low ground and small wood close by the road and a number of caverns like those in England[.] these hills are very rocky and steep and difficult for teams[.] passed several dry creeks[.] travelled 9 miles and campd for dinner, water on the south of the road[.] we started again and ascended a very large hill almost 3 miles long[.] had a splended view from the top[.] descended it and came into the bottom which is very rugged[.] plenty of timber but no water or grass[.] we travelled on to Bitter Spring Creek[.] here was plenty of good water and wood but no feed[.] it was 8 before we got here[.] it was surrounded with rocky Bluffs[.] travelled 17 miles, during the morning we passed 2 small settlements[.] several wooden houses and Indians living in them.

23rd. Cold[.] the wind was very high[.] blew our Tent up and left I and Bro Cooke tentless[.] We started about 8 and ascended a large hill[.] at the bottom of it is a large and steep descent[.] travelled about 3½ miles and came to a small creek-not much feed[.] travelled along this bottom and descended again[.] here are splendid Bluffs covered with fir trees[.] now pass another creek on the south of the road[.] feed scarce[.] again come to the foot of a large hill the largest we have seen and very steep[.] it is about 3 miles long[.] arrived at the top[.] it is a splendid scene[.] I cannot describe its beauty[.] campd for dinner here[.] no water and poor feed. started again and descended the hill, before we reached the bottom of the Hill is a very steep place[.] just room for one waggon to go down[.] reached the bottom and pass through a range of Bluffs each side covered with timber[.] now cross dry creek[.] in a short distance we crossed dead timber creek[.] here is a little water[.] watered our cattle and went up another hill[.] very steep[.] here is a range of Bluffs on the South of the road and the Black Hills on the North[.] we descend and travel along the bottom and get to Horse Spring Creek[.] good water feed and timber[.] camp before we cross on the North of the road about 6 we could hear the howling of wolves[.] travelled 17 miles

24th. Fine morning[.] started about 8[.] ascended a large hill[.] a wide creek at the bottom[.] going to it is a large tree on the north of the road[.] we now ascend another hill[.] at the bottom of this is another wide creek water in each of them[.] now ascend another large hill[.] at the top of this we see south of the road some red rocky Bluffs which continue for several miles[.] beautiful views all round[.] we come down gradully for 5 or 6 miles into the Bottom close by the Platte[.] on the other side the River are splendid Bluffs very high[.] the Rock looks as if it was laid one story above another and trees growing on each story[.] then Bluffs are around at the top and fir trees growing on them[.] Campd for dinner and then passed Hollidays camp[.] they were repairing their waggons[.] descended a large steep hill[.] The Bluffs on the north of the River very grand[.] trees growing on their ledges makes a grand sight[.] the River passes between 2 large Rocks, at the top of this hill is a deep ravine and dry creek[.] we rise another hill and descend into the bottom[.] here is a large open space for miles[.] we gradually descended and at length come to the Platte, on the south of it is a beautiful place covered with timber[.] good feed[.] campd here as there is neither grass nor water for 18 miles[.] went on watch from ½ past 12 to 5[.] The Danes campd ¼ mile from us[.] this day travelled 18 miles and had a good road.

25th. Came off guard at 5. Cattle doing well[.] fine morning but rather cold[.] started at ½ past 7. ascended 2 large hills[.] the scenery is grand. descend this hill and come to 2 creeks one on the north and the other on the south both dry[.] travel on about 11 miles and camp for dinner[.] plenty of timber in the dry creek. Started and ascended another hill and came in sight of Laramie Peak which we saw before we reached Fort Laramie for 60 miles[.] We leave it on the South and ascend a succession of hills, steep and having deep ravines but no water or feed[.] descend for several miles and come to a large dry creek[.] cross it 3 times and then come to beautiful clear water in the Bottom. Watered our cattle and travelled on for about 1½ miles and campd across a deep ravine close by the river Platte[.] Bro. Fosgreens Compy were here. good water plenty of wood & poor feed[.] travelled 18 miles[.] we have seen a Commet in the heavens for the last 5 nights like a star with a very long tail[.] it appears in a S.W. Direction.

26th. The cattle had all crossed the river but there is plenty of feed through the wood[.] they were all safe[.] a clear fine morning[.] started at 8[.] crossed a large hill[.] travelled about 2 miles and came to some red sand, after crossing a succession of hills came to some Bluffs of Red Sand and Marble[.] about this place you will see a large hill or pieces of white stone as though it had been laid one on the top of each other with large stones at the bottom of the Hill[.] travelled 14 miles and campd for dinner[.] no water or wood. started again[.] descended another hill[.] travelled by Bro. Daley’s Camp[.] ascended another hill and went down several steep deep descents[.] travelled into the bottom to a large creek[.] very wide and plenty of wood but no feed[.] travelled ½ mile through this Creek and 2 miles further[.] came to a river[.] plenty of water and wood but poor feed[.] campd for the night[.] there is a splended range of rocks here[.] travelled 18 miles

27th. Cattle all safe but not looking so well. Fine morning[.] started about ½ past 7[.] ascended a large hill and had another beautiful view of a range of Rocky Bluffs on the South of the road[.] travelled 4 miles came to a creek[.] a little water but no grass[.] several deep ravines and large hills to cross[.] travelled about 3 miles from our last camping place and descended into the Bottom[.] here is a beautiful creek and an abundance of water but no grass[.] campd for dinner[.] started again and travelled up a very large hill[.] at the top is white sand and steep to descend[.] at the bottom we again struck the Platte[.] passed a compy of men from California[.] all well[.] travelled on for 2 hours[.] came to Deer Creek which runs along the side of the Platte[.] this is a beautiful place[.] plenty of wood water and grass[.] one part of Bro. Daley’s camp was here the rest followed after us with the Danes[.] our cattle were nearly worn down as they had had but little feed during the week[.] pitched our camp on a beautiful spot[.] inside our correl was the grave of a young man.

28th. Sunday[.] fine morning and the cattle safe[.] at 6 we held a meeting opened by Elder Waddington[.] he afterward addressed us for a short time in a most pleasing manner[.] many of the Brethern bore their testimony to this being the Work of God[.] at this time the rest of Bro. Gates Company came in[.] all well and happy[.] this evening, went on guard from 8 to ½ past 12.

29th. Fine morning[.] Cattle all safe[.] our small company left the Creek about 10 and Bro. Gates soon followed[.] left Bro. Fosgreen’s Compy at the Creek[.] he had come [some] repairs to do[.] the road pretty good but heavy sand at places[.] travelled 8½ miles and came to a beautiful grove of trees[.] stayed for dinner and watered our cattle at the Platte[.] between this and 3 miles there are good camping places on the north of the road near the Platte[.] Crossed mud creek[.] no water or grass[.] traveled 2 miles further and turned down to the river by a grove of trees[.] a good camping place[.] travelled 17 miles

30th. Cattle all safe[.] watered them[.] there was plenty of grass and wood. I will here remark that we were well supplied with mutton for the Brethern found 2 or 3 sheep a day[.] started about 9[.] the rest of our Camp came up with us[.] we passed through the grove of trees[.] soon reached the road and travelled along the river several miles[.] there is a beautiful creek of pure water 6 miles from where we started[.] crossed several deep ravines and crossed a river with a Bridge over it and several white men living there and came to good feed which reaches about 3 miles[.] came close to the Platte and Campd[.] Elder Gates campd close by[.] watered our Cattle[.] the road was very heavy and sandy[.] travelled 12 miles

31st. Fine morning and the cattle all safe[.] during the night there were many wolves round our tents and cattle—they howled dreadfully[.] Bro. Gates thought it wise to give the cattle rest so we stopped for the day and did some repairs[.] here is the place where we have to ford[.] this afternoon a Compy of California Emegrants passed here with a large drove of sheep[.] this is a beautiful open country and plenty of fish in the river[.] there was quite a storm this evening. Bro. Gates gave council for the Saints in the L10 Compy not to sell their flour for he was affraid they would be short of it before they reached the Valley.

September 1st. 1853. The wind very high and cold. Elder Gates came and said he understood some person had been selling their flour[.] he said if he found any person doing so he would cut them off the Church[.] we started about 8[.] travelled a short distance and forded the river and passed through a grove of trees and descended a large hill. several hills and steep ones too—steep ravines and dry creeks[.] we soon pass between two large Bluffs and the river on the south of the road which for 10 milkes [miles] is very uneven[.] we campd in the open place by the side of the Platte[.] drove the oxen over the river to some feed. There is a beautiful range of Red Bluffs south of the river[.] they continue for some distance[.] we leave these red hills on the South and ascend a large hill A Cross a Ravine and ascend another hill then come to a beautiful open country for many miles[.] good road[.] the red hills appear again in the distance and at sun down looked like Crimson[.] At 8 we came near some small bluffs and campd for the night[.] neither wood water or grass[.] went on guard from ½ past 12 to 5 and travelled 16 miles

2nd. Fine morning but cold[.] came off guard at 5[.] Cattle all safe[.] started about 8[.] Crossed the Bluffs and ascended a hill[.] came to an open country and crossed a deep ravine[.] good road for 3 miles then pass between some bluffs[.] Dry Creeks and ravin[e]s to cross[.] no wood water or grass[.] this continues for 4 miles[.] again ascend a large hill with a small creek running at its foot[.] here is a beautiful open country for miles and good road[.] the Bluffs here look grand at the distance[.] we again enter between the Bluffs which are very high and deep ravines and dry creeks and bad roads[.] Now came to one of the poison springs—a Salaratus Spring. We prevented our Cattle from drinking. There is a little grass but dangerous for cattle to eat it[.] here we met a small camp of men from California[.] travelled on and came to Willow Creek[.] but little water a few willows and very muddy and very little grass[.] now came to a large hill one mile to its top[.] hard for teams to climb. At its top is one of the most splendid views I ever saw[.] for 1 mile 1 Bluff rising above another and at a great distance large hills or mountains descended the hill and crossed a deep ravine and again rose a small hill and travelled for about 2 miles and came to a good camping place on the south of the road[.] tood [good] water and grass but not Wood[.] here there is abundance of Buffaloes[.] this Creek runs by the side of a sandy Bluff[.] travelled 18 miles.

3rd. Fine morning[.] the Cattle all safe and doing well[.] the mountains at a distance looked beautiful but the Bluffs close to us look Barren. Independance [Independence] Rock is now in view[.] started at 8 and travelled along the creek for 2 miles[.] good road[.] we now have to pass the creek and come to some bluffs on the south of the road[.] these continue for many miles[.] the road now becomes sandy and heavy on teams[.] Cross serveral [several] deep and dangerous ravines and come to the Large Lake of Salaratus[.] here is abundance to be gathered[.] it sets as hard as ice and has the same appearance[.] this lies on the South of the road[.] when we reached here a heavy storm came on and lasted for some time[.] we started again[.] the sun began to shine on the mountains[.] it was one of the most pleasant sights I ever saw[.] they looked like pearl intermixed with black rock. Travelled on and came to Sweet Water River[.] this is also a beautiful running water about ¾ mile from Independence Rock and about 1 mile from the Salaratus Spring[.] here is one trading house[.] The mountains lay all round except on the east[.] good feed but little wood[.] travelled 15 miles.

4th. Sunday. fine morning and the sun shining which gave the hills a beautiful appearance in the distance, the clouds are considerably below the mountains[.] Elder Gates thought it advisable to travel today[.] Started about 8 and passed the store and 2 tents a little further[.] The road is sandy in places[.] we now enter between the high rocky Bluffs[.] travelled about 5 miles and came very near Devils Gate. about ½ mile from our last camping place is Independence Rock. it looks very noble[.] we travelled round the west end of it. there are the names of hundreds of travellers inscribed on these rocks[.] we now travel alongside some very high rocky bluffs[.] these like Independence Rock are grey granite[.] it appears as if the Thunder and Lightening had split it up in pieces[.] pass through between the Bluffs and come down by the River[.] it runs through the Rock[.] there is room enough for a waggon to pass through[.] there is one tree growing on the north side of the gate[.] a short distance from here is about 10 houses all neatly built of wood[.] it is a beautiful view to see the high Bluffs with trees scattered here and there on the hills[.] we travel on and come to a heavy sandy road and good feed for Cattle. at this place one of the oxen belonging to the Camp died[.] we now cross a ravine[.] the road is rather uneven[.] we travel on and come to the river[.] good feed on the other side the river[.] Campd for the night[.] another cow died[.] there is a deep ravine very muddy water[.] we travelled this day 13 miles.

5th. Sept. 1853[.] Fine but cold[.] the hills and mountains surrounding this place look grand[.] we are camping in a hollow[.] held a meeting this evening[.] the river runs on the north of the road muddy creek on the S.W. and mountains on each side[.] this morning started at 8[.] left the river on the north of the road which is a heavy sandy one[.] travelled several miles and came near some high Bluffs[.] now pass between two high mountains[.] we cross a deep ravine rise and cross a small hill[.] large Bluffs on the South of the road[.] many travellers have inscribed their names on the rocks. pass these and come to a very steep hill and very heavy sand[.] this is a new road[.] many have to double teams this close by the river[.] we camped here for dinner[.] high gravelly Bluffs on the south of the road and Rocky Mountains on the north and studded with trees[.] they look beautiful[.] this is about 9 miles on the way[.] started again and travelled alongside the river[.] we now came into the old road and passed by a large mountain surrounded with Bluffs[.] here the road is very heavy[.] large mountain[s] continue on the left of the road[.] now cross a hill pretty steep in going down and come to the river[.] before us are large mountains and prairie towards the west[.] there are three trees growing on one mountain which looks very singular[.] the road is still heavy and sandy, on the north of the river is high sandy bluffs and large mountains on the other side of them and the same on the south side and the road passes between them[.] it has the appearance of once having been solid[.] it has been rent with storms and large pieces thrown down by Erruptions and we travel on and come to a nice camping place surrounded with Bluffs and mountains[.] the river runs close by[.] plenty of grass and water no wood[.] went on guard at 8 to ½ past 12 and travelled 14½ miles.

6th. Fine morning[.] cattle all safe[.] started at 8. plenty of Prairie hens and other large Birds[.] the road for the next 8 miles is very sandy, travel alongside sandy Bluffs for several miles[.] on the south of the road is a large Bluff[.] it parts at the top[.] the mountains on the south are at a great distance[.] we keep near them on the north are several large openings and it appears that there is a large open country and beautiful rocks separate from other rocks[.] we now come close by Sweet Water. Ford it and camp for dinner close by the mountains[.] they are not so large as some[.] good feed for cattle no wood[.] start again and turn the corner[.] the mountains are very high[.] here again is the names of travellers cut in the rocks[.] we pass an island in the river covered with willows[.] here are very large stones that have rolled from the mountains[.] there is just room enough for teams to pass[.] we ford the river again[.] there are large mountains on each side[.] we pass between and again ford the river—3 times within a mile or so[.] this is a new road to avoid the sandy Bluffs yet this is sandy at places[.] we now pass on the north of the road[.] at some distance a range of white lime or chalk—I was not near enough to see which. here again the towering mountains are seen on each side of beautiful granite[.] we pass between these for about 8 miles and come to the end of them. on the south of the road are 8 distinct hills of rock[.] then we come to a beautiful open country for miles. camp for the night by the Sweet Water[.] good feed and water but no wood, travelled 16 miles

7th. Very cold morning[.] a heavy white frost[.] the sun rising over the eastern mountains was a gorgeous sight[.] started at 8 and crossed the river[.] entered on heavy sandy ground[.] left the mountains in the East[.] this day was hard travelling, sandy Bluffs, several hills and some rather steep. There is a creek of water about 10 miles from where we started[.] not good water and no grass[.] passed the mail with 4 mules and 3 men on horses about 7 miles[.] we travelled further and came to a number of Bluffs and heavy sand[.] descended a very steep sandy hill[.] road lies between two high Bluffs and came into the bottom[.] travelled ½ mile and came to the river and forded it[.] large Bluffs all round[.] no wood and poor feed[.] this morning we came in sight of the snow capped mountains at a distance[.] travelled 18 miles

8th. Morning very cold and our cattle very lame[.] shoe[d] 2 of ours and started at 8[.] ascended 2 hills about 1½ miles long[.] now have a beautiful view[.] descend the hill which is very long and steep[.] gravel road and again come to the river and forded it[.] here is good feed south of the road[.] stayed 2 hours[.] abundance of large fish in the river. Let the cattle feed there and abundance of ducks all round[.] while we stayed a Compy of Californians passed us all well[.] travelled about a ¼ mile and forded the river again[.] we afterwards crossed 2 creeks[.] here is plenty of blue clay and large hills of the same[.] pass between several bluffs and ascend several hills some steep and gravelly and large stones which make it bad on Cattle[.] travelled about 4½ miles and came in sight of the river with Timber growing on its Banks[.] travel by the side of a range of Bluffs some distance then descend a steep hill into the bottom by the side of the river[.] this timber runs about 2 miles[.] we campd here[.] poor feed[.] cattle all safe

[9th.] at 7 we were visited by a compy of men professing to come from Green River[.] they were on their way to Fort Laramie on business of great importance[.] they were also out of provisions[.] we supplied them with some flour[.] about 8 we started and ascended the sweet water mountains which are 3½ miles long and dangerous for teams[.] we crossed a series of hills very rough and difficult to pass[.] we have meet [met] the mail on these mountains with a Compy of Gentlemen[.] amongst them was Dr. Bernhishel (?) on business to the States of great importance[.] the facts we could not learn[.] descended these mountains and passed 3 lakes of Salaratus Water and afterward cross a creek not good water and in about 2 miles cross another creek[.] travel on and come to Strawberry Creek[.] beautiful water[.] stayed here for dinner[.] poor feed[.] there is a grove of trees ½ mile south of the road[.] we now ascend a steep hill and come to another creek about ½ a mile from the other[.] here is a grove of willows on the south of the road[.] not much water[.] we again pass over a series of hills, both on the north and south of the road are some beautiful groves of pine wood on the south[.] We travel for 4 miles by the side of a large range of Bluffs cross the Sweet Water[.] no feed[.] 2 miles further we come to Willow Creek[.] plenty of water and a large range of Willows growing in the Bottom but poor feed except early in the season[.] Campd here for the night[.] drove our cattle about 2 miles on the north of the road[.] here the feed is better[.] this day we travelled 16 miles

10th. Went on guard from ½ past 12 to 5[.] 3 miles from camp here is good feed and the cattle doing well[.] the stars shone bright [missing pages]

[Diary also available in Library of Congress, Collection of Mormon Diaries [1935-1938], reel 11, item 3, vol. 2, 2-42]