Transcript for Jane Rio Griffiths Baker diary, 1851 January-1852 March and 1869 September-1880 May, 9-55
July -7- Started on this last division of our long journey at six A.M. Arrived at the Pappea Bridge, a very dangerous crossing from the steepness of the banks. Come to Elk-Horn and encamped. Thirty-two of us, [Alexander] Rob[b]ins' ten having had some breakages stopped behind to repair. We are now in the country of the Omaha's.
-8- Ferried over the Elk-Horn in safety; except one of [Joseph] Chatterly's Company who caught his hand in a chain, bursting one of his fingers, making a rent of one and one half inches long. Mrs. Joseph Pierce and I sewed it up between us and dressed it as well as we could under the circumstances. Forded the next creek; Willie's dry goods wagon upset in the water, wetting most of the freight. Encamped on the bottom which I am told was under water two weeks ago, making the river four miles in width. Found many fish in the hallows left by the receding waters, and millions of mosquitoes.
-9- Crossed Elk-Horn bottom. Very hard day's travel. Plenty of chains broken. Encamped by the side of the Platte River where we found an Indian grave.
-10- Very sandy roads, but got on very well.
-11- Halted all day to repair damages. Took the opportunity to wash up our dirty line[n].
-12- Exceedingly hot. Passed another Indian grave. Stopped at night by the side of a small lake; plenty of red root growing; of which we gathered enough to cook for our supper. It made a nice variety for our meal. Nine wagons have overtaken us and the travellers have requested to be allowed to join our company. We have now fifty-four (three others having joined us since we left the Missouri River)[.] The new-comers had started for Oregon but had been attacked by Indians who had stolen some of their oxen and driven away the rest. They had recovered some few and were returning to the frontier, when they saw our company and then turned back.
-13- Proceeded onwards. Found ten of the strangers' missing cattle which was quite a God-send to them.
-14- One of our company shot a very fine garfish in a stream by our roadside and presented it to Eliza. That, stewed in the same manner as we used to stew eels at home[,] made us a delicious supper. The fish weighed ten pounds. I had also gathered a quantity of red-root greens, which when boiled are quite as good as spinach. We are now on the Plains in the Pawnee country.
-15- Came to the spot where the Oregon Company lost their cattle. Yokes and bows were laying in all directions; the boys found a nice yoke just fit for my own cows. Encamped at Plumb Creek.
-16-17- Very hard travelling. Deep ravines to cross and a very hard and bad swamp; then a wide creek with a very steep hill to finish with. Encamped on the high ground; violent thunder storm with rain during nearly the whole night.
-18- The men returned to the creek to build a bridge, in order that [Preston] Thomas' ten might get up to us as they were unable to cross last night, having to mend a wheel; and this monring [morning] the waters had risen so as to render the creek dangerous to ford. All got over in safety.
-19-20- We remained in camp repairing damages. This day at half past two o'clock Sister Kempton died. She came with us from London and was in her usual health till two days ago. Aunt [Mary Ann] Bateman and I laid her out and sewed her body up in a sheet. She was buried by the Brethern at sunset on the summit of a small hill where there are five other graves. Mr. Pierce was baptized this evening.
-21- Crossed the Loup-fork all safe, and came up on the Bluff five miles, very heavy road.
-22- Bad, sandy road, we saw numbers of frogs, hares, doves and the skull of an elk with a message written on it with a pencil informing us that the Indians were on the lookout for opportunities to steal cattle from the passing emigrants.
-23- Crossed three deep ravines two of them with water in them. Upset one of Rob[b]in's wagons going down to Wood River which scared me, so I preferred wading to riding as the water at the fording place was only a few inches deep. The rest got over in safety; travelled one mile; when Rob[b]ins smashed one of his wheels on a stump so encamped by the river.
-24- The hottest day we have had. Crossed fourteen miles of prairie, then came to the side of a wood when we were met by a hot wind. One of my finest oxen fell down and died in a few minutes. Several of the teams were suffering in like manner though mine was the only one that died.
-25- Not quite so hot a day but we travelled quite slowly on account of the weakness of the cattle, arising from the hot wind of yesterday.
-26- Came near to Fort Kearney where I bought an ox to take the place of the one that died. He cost me $30.00.
-27- Sunday. Remained in camp. Prayer meeting in the afternoon.
-28- Came in sight of buffalo. Our company shot a young one and we enjoyed a meal of fresh meat. Our captain of fifty who has crossed the plains five times, and is consequently well acquainted with the country, tells us that sometimes the buffalo numbers 10,000 in a single herd.
-29- Met three wagons, one of them from Salt Lake which had overtaken the other two on the road. They reported that three companies of fifties are eight days ahead of us, and that we are still ahead of Elder Pratt's company which left Kanesville two weeks before we did, and in consequences of the high water went around the Elk-Horn instead of fording it, making the journey 150 miles longer, from other reports too, we fear that his company has been attacked by Indians. Orson Hyde who went on alone; they tell us had overtaken those ahead of us, but had been previously stopped by some Indians and robbed of nearly everything he had.
-30- Much bothered with buffalo which are very numerous. Stragglers are apt to run in among our cattle, terrifying them very much and it has been all the horsemen could do to prevent their doing mischief on encamping for the night. We saw another company of 115 wagons about a mile before us, they had endeavored to head the Horn, but found it impracticable; so crossed higher up than we did. They have come 460 miles, have had a very trying journey, have had their cattle stampeded by Indians and lost eighteen head of them. Sister Kingsby, who was among them was run over and killed. They are under Elder [Morris] Phelps.
-31- Saw no buffalo to-day. Thunderstorm at night.
August -1- We are travelling in sight of the company ahead of us and this evening two of our old shipmates who are with them, Sister Whitaker and Boss, came over to see us.
-2- Passed Elder Phelp's company and came to a small creek in safety; making 100 miles since Monday morning. Saw a few buffaloes this evening. Two of our people went out to shoot one, which they did, but it being too dark to cut it up, left it, intending to bring it to-morrow morning.
-3- Sunday. The men went out early this morning to bring in the meat but found the wolves had been before them and left only the bones. However, they shot two more, so that we have another week's supply of fresh meat. One of the strangers in our company spoke at our meeting this afternoon and pleased us very much, by his testimony in our favor.
-4- A very heavy day's travelling. We had to cross a great many sand hills. Saw thousands of lizards, snakes and grasshoppers. [John] Kay Got his wagon tongue broke.
-5- Met a company of returning Californians. They had passed through Salt Lake City where the people were just finishing their harvesting, which has been abundant. Had not seen an Indian since Lamorie [Laramie], but tell us that there is a Mormon company fifteen miles ahead of us with whom they encamped last night. This afternoon the man who cooks for Rob[b]in's ten was accidently [accidentally] run over. Also one of the children; they were much bruised but no bones broken.
-6- A continuation of yesterday's difficulties. The country wild and romantic.
-7- A terrible sand hill and pass among mountains. Chatterly's rear wheel turned inside out. Mr. Conlett gave Elizabeth a puppy much to her delight. Passed two graves; one, that of a member of the old Independent Church, who died in August 1849, but the name too indistinct to be deciphered. The other, that of Hannah Hawks, aged 46, who died the same week.
-8- Very pleasant travelling all day. Saw a returning merchant train from Salt Lake. They had one of their wagons take fire, and on two of their men trying to extinguish it, their gun-powder exploded and killed them both. Shot two fine antelopes to-day. This evening as one of Robin's men was milking, he was nearly killed by the cows kicking. He was carried to his wagon quite insensible.
-9- Phelps company overtook us. All well. We afterwards passed them. Saw Chemney [Chimney] Rock; I climbed to the top of a bluff in order to get a view of the country; the scenery grand. We encamped early.
-10- Sunday. Meeting as usual.
-11-12-13- Good Travelling.
-14- Very heavy rain during last which has made the road very heavy. Passed a smart Indian of the Sioux tribe. In the evening we found that quite a number of them were encamped near us.
-15- Indians with us all day. Very fine looking fellows; and very gayly attired; the dresses of the women, some of them nearly covered with beadwork. They came to camp with us and stayed till dusk.
-16- Some cattle strayed during the night and were not found till noon. I purchased four fine hams at the trading post; also a yoke of oxen for which I paid $65.
-17- Sunday. Compelled to travel part of the day in order to find grass. Crossed the Platte River and encamped; surrounded by mountains; covered with cedar and pine.
-18- A very hard road all day. Crossed some mountains but the view from the top no pen can describe. We managed to get 20 miles; but it was hard work. Did not get to camp till 11 o'clock. Saw four oxen dead on the road and many wheels, axles, and tires; the result of former accidents. We had two wheels broken. Chatterly's and Rob[b]ins'. Loads of cherries and currents [currants].
-19- Remained in camp all day, repairing damages. Sister Sharkey gave birth to a daughter, doing well.
-20- Very beautiful country, but very dusty.
-21- Horrible roads. Crossed the Platte twice; encamped along with the Phelps company by the river side.
-22-23- Very hard and bad travelling. Deep ravines and many sand hills.
-24 - Sunday. At our meeting today Brother Thomas preached on the First Principles of the Gospel of Christ.
-25- Travelled ten miles and encamped by the river. I was sent for to Sister [Hannah] Henderson who had been ill for two days. In one hour, I was enabled to assist her in the mother is so much exhausted that I fear she will not rally again.
-26- Remained in camp all day setting tires. Sister Henderson very low; the infant quite well. A hunting party which set out yesterday returned with plenty of fresh meat.
-27- Sister [Hannah] Henderson died to-day at noon. We buried her at 9 P.M. She left seven children.
-28- Crossed the Platte. Captain Brown passed the word for all the wagons to keep as close as possible as there were Indians in the vicinity. Looking forward, I saw a little army of them about a mile distand [distant], coming down the side of the mountain. Our men at once loaded their guns so as to be in readiness in case of an attack, but on our approaching the Indians, they opened their ranks and we passed along without any trouble. The Government agent was with them in a buggy and sitting between his knees was the daughter of the chief; a pretty little creature of about three years old who seemed to be quite pleased at our appearance. The agent told us that these were some of the Shoshones; that 3,000 more encamped on the banks of the Sweetwater, 20 miles from us that those present were 90 of the principal warriors with their families going to a great counsel of various tribes to endeavor to settle their differences and bury the Tomahawk. They made a grand appearance, all on horse-back and very gayly dressed; some with lances, others with guns or bows and arrows; also a number of ponies carrying their tents; the men passed on one side of us, the women and children on the other; but all of them well mounted. Their clothing was beautifully trimmed with small beads; altogether it was quite an imposing procession. After leaving them our road was among the mountains till we came to camp.
-29- We are among the Rocky Mountains. The country is a deseret [desert] except here and there, a patch of grass by the side of the small streams; the scenery grand and terrible. I have walked under over-hanging rocks which seemed only to need the pressure of a finger to send them down headlong. Many of them resemble the ruins of old castles, and it needs but a little stretch of the imagination to fancy yourself in the deserted hall of a palace of a temple. There seems to be much metal among the rocks. I picked up some specimens which I am told are silver, and iron ore; also some lumps of coal which burn brightly. Our road is so steep as to seem almost like going down a staircase. Killed a sheep to-day which makes a nice change in our food.
-30- Very sandy roads; saw multi[tu]des of hares and rabbits; but had no time to shoot any. Saw a few buffalo. Encamped by the Sweetwater.
-31- Sunday. Sermon from Elder G[eorge]. D. Watt on the new birth. Mrs. [Grace] Richards an English woman who with her husband and five children are in our ten, gave me a fine fat hare this evening which made us a delicious supper.
September -4- Saw the snow-capped mountains for the first time. Our cattle began to show signs of fatigue. Richard Margetts had an ox die yesterday and two of mine gave out.
-5- Remained in camp all day to give the sick oxen a rest. Killed three antelopes and caught lots of fish.
-6- Confortable [comfortable] travelling all day. Crossed the Sweetwater River four times. Encamped in a pretty spot by the river side. Killed two antelopes.
-7- Started at noon; crossed a rocky ridge called the Devil's Backbone; very barren country.
-8- Met the mail from Salt Lake; with it was Dr. Bernhill [Bernhisel] the Utah delegate. All the news he brought was of a cherring [cheering] kind; travelled on till noon and halted for the rest of the day; on some very good grass; very pretty scenery.
-9- Several of the cattle have strayed with [which] delayed us an hour after our usual starting time. Travelled two miles when one of my oxen fell down and died, we think he had been poisoned, by picking up some Indian paint; as we were near one of their villages. One of Robin's wagons broke down; another a wheel, so leaving their ten to patch up we came on nineteen miles without stopping, (from the scarcity of grass) till we came to one of the Pacific Springs on the side of which we encamped. Robins came in at night all but one wagon, which was too much shattered to bring on.
-10- Remained in camp all day. Patched Robins missing wagon and mended the broken ones. One of Brother [John Warren] Norton's daughters had her leg broken by a kick from a cow while milking. Her father set the bone and she seems to be doing well; no inflammation having appeared. Two men came up with us; one from Allred's the other from Cordon's Company. They left on account of provisions growing short and teams giving out. They tell us that the companies were throwing away all that they possibly could spare in order to lighten the loads. That nineteen wagons had left Pratt's company and overtook Cordons. They had been visited by an Indian party who had robbed six of them, bidding the owners defiance, and telling them they had five hundred warriors on the other side of the hill. It seems our people were frightened and suffered them to do as they pleased, expect one Englishman who gave one of the Indians a sound thrashing with his ship-stock. These two men have started with out any provisions, taking their chanced [chances] of meeting with other companies. They supped with us and started on; as they travel in the night only in order to avoid the high winds which we constantly have in the daytime, though the nights are quite calma [calm] and pleasant. They hope to arrive in the valley in time to send out provisions to the various companies, who are behind; who we fear will be much distressed. Two other men overtook us to-day having six mules. They are from Laramie and tell us that there are a thousand lodges round the Fort, and many more expected. They seem to be apprehensive that there is trouble brewing; also that two Shoshones had been killed by a party of Cheyen[n]es and the Shoshones had in return slaughtered twenty-seven out of thirty Cheyen[n]es they had fallen in with on their way to the Great Counsel of the Tribes. Poor prospect this of peace among them as those thirty were actually delegates from their own people. The atmosphere is much warmer since we crossed the mountain ridge.
-11- Pretty good travelling all day except the scarcity of grass. Encamped on Pacific Creek; the wolves very troublesome all night with their howling, which was accompanied by the barking of all the dogs in camp.
-12- Very heavy, sandy roads all day.
-13- This monring <morning> a general strike took place among Rob[b]ins' teamsters. There has been dis[s]atisfaction for some weeks owing to the scantiness and inferior quality of their rati[o]ns, and Mr. Robins refusing to make any improvement the men shouldered their blankets and set off intending to take their chance for provisions on the road, as they go along. In an hour the camp started; by noon the Captain had overtaken the men and expressed his wish that they would return in order that there might be an investigation of the matter. They agreed to do so and we went on till sundown and encamped on Big Sandy River to the great joy of ourselves and cattle, who had not seen grass or water for eighteen miles. One Captain then supplied the mutineers with a tent and plenty of buffalo robes, and we all retired for the night.
-14- Sunday. Lovely Morning. After breakfast Walter, William and Derrick went out with their guns in hopes of finding some game but were disappointed; turning out our last ham for dinner. During the morning Robins had a conflab with his men; when on his promising to supply their wants in the eating way, six out of the nine agreed to remain with him. The other three would have nothing to do with him on any terms. Three wagons from Salt Lake came up to us. They had brought provisions out, but to my chagrin had sold all they had to the companies ahead of us, and were then going to meet those in the rear in order to see if they needed any assistance. They also told us that there were some wagons laden with flour coming to meet us, so we hope to see them in a day or two. Meeting in the afternoon. Sermon from Captain Brown on the Kingdom of Heaven. Elder Margetts spoke after him. John Tout, who had been baptised during the week was then publicly received into the church and the meeting closed.
-15- Came among timber to-day near Green River. Passed through some very beautiful country and we were just the ones to appreciate it, having seen nothing but sand and wild sage for three hundred miles, with now and then a mountain stream to break the monotony of the scene. We forded the river, a wide rushing stream, and clear as crystal. Along the sides the cottonwood trees were numerous. We travelled through this beautiful scenery for several miles; on looking down the banks, which are very steep except at the fording place, I observed a white sandy appearance among the pebbles, so being blest with a tolerable share of the failing of which our first parents left so plentiful a supply to their posterity, I managed to scramble down to the water edge and on taking up some, first looking at it, and then tasting, I found it to be pure salt. How it got there, I cannot imagine as the water is quite fresh and we are at an altitufe [altitude] of 6500 feet above the leavel [level] of the sea. We camped in a grove of timber on the banks of this beautiful stream, which seemed like a paradise after the long stretch of deseret [desert] country through which we have been travelling for the last four weeks. While we were sitting at supper, a stranger visited us. He told us he was a servant at a trading post two miles off, and came to inquire if we wanted any cattle or provisions. "What have you got," said I: "Bacon and whiskey, Madam"; "any butter": "No butter": "Any groceries or fresh meat" "No, Madam, but there is plenty at Fort Bridger, fifty miles further." After some more palaver, nine of our young men, (Walter [Baker] among them) went back with him to the post and purchased some bacon, which we found of very good quality. The treader [trader] told them that he had lived among the Indians for fifteen years and had not visited the states for ten years. His habitation was surrounded by the Indian huts belonging to the snakes, who had among them four of the Utah squaws who had been taken prisoners when childred [children] and adopted into the tribe. Each of the white men, (4 in number) had an I[n]dian wife, and each their own habitation, several hundred head of cattle, and 150 horses; and seemed to be very happy in their wilderness way of life.
-16- This morning three of the Indian women paid us a visit remaining with us until we started. We came almost at once on sandy, barren road which extended for fifteen miles. All the streams were dry and we travelled along the bed of one for some distance; the banks of which were very high and steep, indeed, in some places perpendicular. It was dusk before we arrived at a camping ground and both men and cattle were much fatigued.
-17-18 Still heavy, sandy, road but good camping grounds. Elder Rob[b]ins taken suddenly ill yesterday, we were afraid he was going to have a fever, but seems better this morning. Three oxen died yesterday.
-19- Arrived at Fort Bridger, and to my great joy, I was able to purchase forty pounds of very fine, fresh, beef; I never saw finer in the London Markets, and that is saying a good deal. Also as a great favor, I got three pounds of potatoes, for which I paid fifty cents. The beef was only ten cents a pound. Travelled on untill we came to Muddy Fork and encamped.
-20-21- Very romantic scenery all day. Mostly ascending until we arrived at the rim of the Great Basin where we encamped; the feed being very good. Sister [Mary Shepherd] Derrick was delivered a fine little girl [Ursula Sheppard Derrick] this morning at one o'clock. We have had gentle but incessant rain all night; to our very great comfort as the dust has been almost choking us for the last three weeks, with a continued west wind, which just blows in our faces. Obliged to travel to-day for want of water. The scenery is sublime our road being between and around high mountains. We crossed over one so long and steep as to make it very hard on the oxen. We had ten yoke to each wagon. On descending we came to Bear River, a swift stream, abounding with trout and thickly bordered with trees of various kinds. We encamped on its banks. Eliza has been very ill all day. I am very uneasy, as I fear it will cause a premature birth. Mrs. Derrick doing well.
-22- As I feared, my dear girl's labor came on during the night, and at daybreak a little grandson was born, to my very great joy. I have some fears for its life, but I do hope our Heavenly Father will spare it to us, and make it a blessing to us all and an honorable member of His Kingdom. The children are all over-joyed. I lost another ox today by poison.
-25- The country for the last three days has been beyong [beyond] description for wilderness and beauty. We are indeed among the everlasting Hills.
-26- We had this day a view of Salt Lake Valley from the summit of a mountain, 7245 feet above the level of the sea. Here we were met by several men with teams ready to assi[s]t those who needed help. Among others a man by the name of Gadburg from Camden-Town, who had been in the valley two years. The descent of the mountain was awfully steep and dangerous for about four miles. I took our little stranger in my arms and walked the distance, for it was as much as Eliza could do to hold herself firmly in bed. Mrs. Derrick's daughter did the same with their babe, so the two ladies "In the Straw" were the only ones who remained in the wagons. When I arrived at the base of the mountain, I turned to look at the coming wagons and was actually terrified to see them rushing down, though both wheels were locked. No accident occur[r]ed, and we were now at the entrance of a narrow defile between rocks measuring 800 feed [feet] perpendicular height, with a serpentine stream running through it, which we shall have to cross nineteen time[s].
-27- In about an hour after star[t]ing we came to a deep ravine, over which was through an apology for a bridge. We got over without accident, but how it was that there were no wagons overturned or oxen killed seems almost miraculous. Our road afterwards was through a forest of small timber, which made it very unpleasant travelling, till we arrived at Brown's Creek so named after our Captain, who was one of the pioneers to the valley four years ago. One and three-fourths miles from this we came to a clear spring of water and encamped for the night. Mrs. Derrick doing well. Eliza has suffered much from the roughness of the road, which has been worse to-day than any part of the journey wince [since] leaving Kanesville and our captain gives the comfortable assurance to us that it will be still worse tomorrow.
-28- Of all the splendid scenery, and awful roads, that have ever been seen since creation, I think this day's journey has beaten them all, we had encamped last night at the foot of a mountain, which we had to ascend t his morning. This was hard enough on our poor worn out animals, but the road after was completely covered with stones, as large as bushel boxes, stumps of tree
ns, with here and there mudholes in which our poor oxen sunk to the knees. Added to all this there was a Canyon Creek stream of water running at the bottom of a deep ravine, which interceded our road in such a zigzag fashion, that we had to ford it sixteen times, de[s]cent of fifteen to twenty feet and of course an equal ascent, and that in some places nearly perpendicular. One of my own teams were forced down a decline with such rapidity that one of the oxen fell into the stream and was drowned before it could be extricated. This makes six oxen I have lost on the journey. The mountains on each side of us seem to be solid rock but in the crevices on their sides trees are growing in abundance and the tops covered with groves of splendid fir trees. In some places large pieces of rock have been detached and have rolled down the mountain side many of them as large as a small house. In some instances these rocks lie directly across the road which occasion much difficulty in travelling. In one spot, the rocks had the appearance of a ru[i]ninous gateway through which we had to pass; the opening was very narrow, only one wagon could go along at a time and that along the bed of the Canyon Creek which seems to have forced its way through the opening I have described; it then turns off to the side of the road, which is immediately under overhanging rocks for some distance. The grandeur of the scenery to my mind takes away all fear and while standing in admiration of the view Milton's expressions in his Paradise Lost came forcible to my recollections--"These are th ey glorious works, Parent of God. In wisdom hast thou made them all."'and I seemed to forget all the hardships of our long journey. Suddenly I heard a sound as of rushing water; on my left hand, and looking in that direction I observed that the mountain stream buried itself among some bushes and sure enough there was the prettiest waterfall I had seen yet. I cannot describe it as it deserves, and alas! I am no artist or I would make a drawing of it. However the cataract in itself was comprised of fifteen separate falls, over as many pieces of rock. The whole perpendicular height being about thirty-five or forty feet. It struck me with both awe and delight and I felt as though I would like to have lingered a long time watching it. I dare say many would laugh at me and they are welcome if doing so affords them any pleasure; however the shouting of the teamsters warned me to keep moving if I did not wish to be left behind. On going about a quarter of a mile from this lovely spot we came upon seven wagons all in a row; every one of them with a broken wheel or axel. The sight made our company very careful for fear of being in the same bobble. Passing there as well as we could in the narrow road, we came to some others and soon after some more in the like fix making in all seventeen. We picked our way as well as we could and at about sunset we emerged from the Canyon and caught a faint view of our destined home. We encamped in a hallow just at the entrance of the valley, and night came on before we could get a good look about us. I then began to find that I was very tired so went into the wagon and found Eliza had suffered much from the jolting of the day's travel; thank God however it is over now and they tell us that five miles tomorrow will bring us into the said Salt Lake City, and that after crossing the hill at whose base we are now resting, we shall have a road as smooth as a bowling stream.
-29- Rose this morning with a thankful heart that our travels were nearly finished; at least we hope so. After breakfast and looking after my two patients who are doing even much better under the circumstances than might have been expected, and the babies first rate, I ascended the hill before us and had my first view of the city which is laid out in squares or blocks as they call them here; each containing ten acres and divided into eight lots each lot having one house. I stood and looked. I can hardly analyze my feelings, but I think my prevailing ones were joy and gratitude for the protecting care had over my and mine during our long and peril
[Variant versions of text also in An Enduring Legacy, 12 vols. (1978-89), 10:222-34; Heart Throbs of the West, 12 vols. (1939-51), 12:407-12; Kenneth L. Holmes, ed. and comp., Covered Wagon Women: Diaries and Letters from the Western Trails, 1840-1890, vol. 3 (1984), 223-77; and Emma N. Mortensen, comp., Two Mormon Pioneers (1986), 145-91]