Transcript for Levi Jackman journal, 1847 March-1849 April, 35-59

Levi Jackman's Journal 1


I left home in company with Simon Cantier {Lyman Curtis} on the 29th of March 1847 as pianears to go with the Company of pianears to finde a location for the Saints Some whair in the west. We arrived at the main camp on the west side of the Missouri river on the st and after finishing our arraingemats we left about 8 o{clock} and on the 6th arrived at the big Elk horn where we fel in with 4 teams that had started a little before us--

Apr 7 we cros{s}ed the Creek on a raft and camped to wate the arrival of the remainder of the Camp--oure team was one yoak of oxen and one horese, we had about thirteen hundred lbs of loading--

Saturday 10 the remainder of the Camp commiced {commenced} crossing and finished on Sunday 11. The creek is about ten rods wide at the fry and three feet and upwards deep--This place is about 6 miles from the mouth--where it emptes into the Platt{e} river and for some miles up and down is one wide open bottom between the two streems{.} This place is in lat. 41--16 north and 1370 miles from Bare {Bear} Creek valley at the mouth according to Freemont's account

Monday 12 the Bros {Brigham} Young{,} {Heber C.} Kimbel and some outhers retourned {returned} to hold a counsil with the remainder of the twelve that had jest retourned from the east and the most of the camp Say 63 moved on up the Platt{e} about 10 {11} miles and there {-} wated there {their} retourn.

Apr Thursday, 10, Br Young, Kimble and outhers returned to our camp on the Platt{e} and

on Friday 15th Camp was organized and we went that day a fue miles and camped. We numbered waggons 73 and 143 men.

Saterday 17 The night has be{e}n verrye colde the ice has froze 3/4 of an inch thick, the young gras{s} which was verrey scattering, was cosiderabley killed and thus found it our teems Could git but little onley Cottonwood browce--this day we went about 7 miles and camped{.} it was a colde day.

Satnday {Sunday} 18 Staid in Camp--cold weather.

Monday 19 fine weather{.} moved on--

Tuesday 20 fine day verrey warm and dustey--

Wensday 21 Colde wind from the N.E. and clowdey and Signs of rain--About 10 oclk we got in a fewe miles of the Pawnee Indian winter quarters and some fue came and met us and seamed verrey friendly, a little after noon we stopt to bait opposite there camps which was on the outher side of the Loup Fork--The Chief and about 30 outhers soon geathered in. they ware friendly and and wanted presents and when we did not give them as mutch Powder led & tobacco &c as they wanted, they ware dissatisfied and the chief would not shake hands with Br. Young when they went away, we went on some eight miles and camped. That tribe being in the habbet of stealing horses and outher things from emegrants we had 100 on g{u}ard that night half standing at a time{.} the night was colde and windey. We had a smart shower in the after noon--The Pawnees are mutch fainer {fairer} comple{c}ted than most outher Indians. They had there heds shaved with the exception of a staik {streak} about 2 inches wide from a little back of there fore heads to the neck and that was about 2 in{ches} long and stuck straint up and resembled a rusters comb--There dress was a bricth clout and Buffelo skins on a blanket{.} Some fue had leggings.

Thursday 22nd. The day was fine{.} we followed up the Lup {Loup} fork of the Platt{e} and at a little after noon crossed Be{a}ver fork a Streem about 3 rods wide and about 2 1/2 f{ee}t deep. This place is Lat 41:25--a little before son set we reached the olde Pawnee town, nothing was to be seene but the olde mission post which consisted of a fue houses but uninhabited. The Indians had not retourned from there hunt. They lived in lodges of hides at this place was evacuated on the account of the Sues {Sioux} harrising the Pottowatamis A little before sun set we reach the olde Pawnee misseanery post but it was evacauated to is a fine situation.

Friday 23 we went up about 7 miles and commenced making arrangements for crossing the river, it is near 1/2 mile a crost and in some places about 3 ft deep. We did not cross that day but campt on the bank keeping out a guard at night as usual--We had come up the Platt{e} & Loupe fork about 150 miles throug{h} as fine a countrey as I ever saw, almost entirely level the finest countrey for farming that can be with the exception of timber Cotton wood skirting the river is all the timber to be found and verrey scarce at that. We campt about 3/4 of a mile below the olde Pawnee town. I went to see it--it is situated on the north side of the river on a beautiful plain which is about 20 ft above the river, the plain is about 1/2 mile wide back of that the ground rises, The town stood on the bank of the river, it contained about 140 lodges last winter when the Pawnees ware all gon on there hunt the Suse {Sioux} came and burnt there town with the excep{t}ion of the Chiefs lodge. That was not hurt--They had all be{e}n built alike the one remaining was about 45 ft in side and about ft 15 ft high in the center. They ware built round with two roes of posts to support the plaits, about 7 ft high of the wall. stood nearley streight up from that point it was something 13 feet the center at the top leaving a hole through the top about 3 ft acrost, from the east side run an entery about 20 ft long and of good size. The first covering was poles runing up and down, next was small poles running round and lashed to the outhers, The next was long grass laying up and down, Then all covered with turf{.} They ware all made in that form must have cost mutch labour. They had stables made with poles stuck in the ground and outhers runing round lashed with strings of raw hide or bark.

Saterday 24 This day we crost the river, we had to double team and raftering the river. we had to go about one mile quartering up part of the distance sand banks, the bottom is quick sand and as soon as a team stops it begins to sink. We then went on about 3 miles and campt on the bank of the river.

Sabath 25 We stopt and rested all day.

Monday 26 between 3 and 4 in the morning {2 of} oure gard fired there guns on oure Left wing clos to the river and reported that Indians ware creeping close to oure line and that 6 indians rose from there creeping situation ran up the river bank at the discharge of there gun. The Camp was soon under arms but nothing more was seen of them--It was suposed to be Suse {Sioux} Indians by the shape of the track in the Sand . The river runs west and the soile is sandey, But little of the olde grass is burned and the young grass is verrey small which makes it hard for teems. The weather is very warm--We traviled about 14 miles and camped on a small run called gravel Creek. By this time timber had became very scarce. This eavening about dark the Indians took two horses and made there escape.

Sunday 27 we left the Loup fork and went South for the platt{e}. At about ten we struck Come where the olde grass was burnt and green gras was again to be seen but it was too small to do mutch good, at this place found the first Sines of Buffeloo. The land was raley {really} and before we reached the Platt{e} bottom the ground became So Sandey that it looked like a desart. When we struck the bottom the grass was better{.} We stopt this night on a fine little creek in the open praria and with difficulty get a fue dry will sticks to make a little one. Antelope was kild{.} this for the first game of any Size that had be{e}n killed Since we started. Jest as we stopt a gun accidentley went off and broke a horses legg. This was the fourth hors{e} that was lost since last friday. On that night one horse belonging to Br B{.} Young got hung by his halter. We had a little Sprinke{l} of rain this P.M. with high winds--.We traveled this day about 15 miles

Wensday 28 We crst the Creek and went on about south about 8 miles and Came near the Platt{e} timber, we then turned up. The bottom had the appearance of a vast green Sea, no timber in Sight onley a narrow strip on our left. It is a beautiful countrey but rather sandey. we traviled this day about 12 miles.

Thursday 29 We crost wood creek this morning and. The creek runs about west and the Platt{e} about sou,{th} west, We traviled this day about 16 miles{.} the day was verrey warm and a hevey callum arose along the line. it had be{e}n so for a number of days which made it disag{re}eable.

Friday 30 it was quite Cool through the night{.} this day the wind was north and Came brisk and very Cold. we traelied {travelled} about 16 miles and Campt without timber

Saterday May 1 {blank space}
Windey and Colde{.} about 9 Oclk we discovered about 50 Buffelows--oure hunters went after them, wounded one but got none. Soon after we Saw hundreds of them and we got five olde ones and a number of calv{e}s. we this day pas{s}ed through what is Cald a Peria {prairie} dog town. This town Co{..}ed hundreds of heirs {hares}; they are of the dog species about as large as a ground ground hog and live in holes and they were quite thick. we Stoped a little before son set and got in oure beef which was received with mutch joy. We had a fine feast that night{.} we Camped on a kinde of slew or a Creek which we Caled Buffelo Creek{.} we found some wood. went about 12m{.} We have passed through a fine bottom Countrey of good land for Some dayes. The inteorey {interior} is verrey broaken and not fit for cultivation.

Sunday 2 our Camp this morning had the appearance of a meat market. all hands ware busey fixing there Beef for Cooking and drying. and makeing roaps of the hide. they are not good for robes at this season of the year--The ice was near a 1/2 inch thick this morning but Soon Came of{f} warm and pleasant--We had past for some dayes through the countrey of Buffelo grass, it resembles blue grass, it is fine and for common not more than from 4 to 6 inches high, in maney places one would think he was in an olde paster {pasture}, the grass is eat Short and the ground is well covered with dung but the fence is missing. It has ben hard on our teems thus for want of grasing. this evening we went on about (3) miles to a tollarable good grasin plase and Camped on the bank of the Platt{e} above grand Isleand {Island} and at the mouth of a creek that we Called Bluff Creek{.} the river at this place I should think to be 1 1/4 miles wide, no wood only willow brush. The Buffalo meat Came good to us for Curtice {Curtis Lyman} and myself had lived on Corn bread water porrage for Some time onley when we Could get a little milk of Br Brown to put in to it which made it mutch better.

Monday 3d The Camp stoped the day to do some black Smith work and let oure teams recrutt a little{.} it being the best place we had found, at the same time a Company of twentey hunters went out to hunt and some of fifteen went up the river to Se{e} the Situation of the Countrey, about three Ocl{oc}k they Came back and reported that they had Seen a large Camp of indians and that they tryed waylay them but oure men discovered them in time to escape. They are not in habbit of atacting {attacking} large bodies of white men but when they can git a fue in a company they are most sure to rob them and Sometimes will kill one or two when no more are near. a gooddeal of anxiety was felt for the hunters who had gone north and a Company was imeateley sent for them. They all returned in Saftey. They killed 2 or 3 Antelope and about as many Bullelo {Buffalo} Calves--The Antilope is Something a mediume betwene the deer and goat. They have hair like a dear and forked horns--We saw Smoak a head and heared that what little fead there was would be destroyed by fires.

Tusday 4 We crosed the Creek at the mouth which was easely redered passable by throwing in Some willowes. We had not gon far be before we found that oure fears was too tame. The olde grass which was short and fine by this time was Some what filled with a new groath which made tollerable fead tho not the best. but the Indians had Set all on fire excepting hear and there a Spot. The blackness of Praria {Prarie} under our circumstances presented a dismall Sight--At this time a Small Compeney of traiders was passing down the outher side of the Platt{e} on the Oregin {Oregon} trail{.} they seeing us stoped and one came over and inforamed us that on that Side the river the grass was good, We held a short Consultation on the subject and Concluded to keep on this side, becaus it woud {be} better for our brethren who would follow after. So after writing a fue letters to Send back we started on, we went that day about 10 m and Camped on a creek which I Call Clear Creek{.} We found grass at this place--

Wensday 5 This day we found the land more moist and Soft than we had found before{.} the wheels cut in considerabley in many places; we found the grass mostley burned, about halfpast 4 we had to stop becaus{e} of the fire and smoke a head, and the wind had blown a perfict gale all day from the South. We Camped Close to the river and put our teems on a Small isleand where there was grass. This day we went about 10 miles{.} to day the campe kiled one Buffelo Cow and five calves. We had plentey of beef, veal & antelope. All first rate meat

Wensday Thursday 6 As it poor picking where we stoped we started earley and went 2 or 3 miles to a place that had not be{e}n burned and took breakfast and bated, the ground was dry to day wind west {illegible.} It was a pleasant seanrey to see hundreds & thousands of Buffelo feading quietly{.} Strung along for many betweean us and the bluffs, and Elk & antelope feading with them undisturbed--by this time maney of the teams began to fail for want of food, We Could See the green grass on the outher side of the river, and the water being low we could easely get to it and had a good trail to travied {travel} in and for us it would have be{e}n better, but it was nessasary to select a rout{e} on the north side of the Platt{e} for the Church to travel, and if we had Crossed those who followed would loose the track or at least the water by theat time would be so high they could not Crose and it might prove gratley to there disadvantage, so we kept on. This day we went about 14 miles and camped on the rive{r} bank. This river is remarkeble for holding a due E&W. coarse

Friday 7 We started late this mor{n}ing that oure teams might have a chance to fill themselve{s.} the wind blue hevey from the north and cold{.} The Indians have Campt along the river in large boddies of hundreds of lodges in a place which have be{e}n host at different times for years past and the sticks they left to gather with Some drift wood and Buffelo dung Sirved for our fuel. The Buffelo are so plenty at this time that it requires a strict watch to keap them and oure Cows from running to geather, we Could kill without measure but we onley kill what we want to eat, we are in ful vieu of many hundred of them all the time. This day we traviled about 9 miles and Camped near the river by a Slue.

Saterday 8 A fine warm morning, we traviled this day about 11 m{.} the grass is entirely eat down by the Buffelo So that our teams can scarsley subsist{.} The we pased today is too Sandy for tilling{.} The bluffs where we stop to night Comes down to the river. The Buffelo has ben as thick as sheap in a pasture on both sides of the river and Some Came within a fue rods of us. The river bends bends to the N.W.

Sab{b}ath 9 We went this about 3 1/2 miles to git better range but found a Sandey, naked Countrey. the are hard times on teams but we hope for the better.

Monday 10 At this place we put up a post with a box on it and a letter in the box and for the next Camp. It was marked on the out side of the box 316 miles from oure winter quarters. We two Creeks today & one a little after noon which I Called mud Creek, it was bad to cros{.} the mud was deep, We went 10 miles and campt.

Tusday 11 Today we found but little grass for our teams. We have past fue Buffelo, it appeared that they had eat all the grass and left the place. It had the appearance of a pasture that had ben over Stocked with Cattle. In the after noon we crosd a Small creek where thear was a littl{e} grass and we Camped having Come onley about 8 miles{.} our teams ware failing for want of food{.} Oure Cours{e} for a fue dayes had be{e}n from west to South west{.} We had reached none. Came to the banks of the river. we kept up the north bank.

Wensday 12 we went 12 miles and camped{.} it was a fine warm day.

Thursday 13 The wind blue verrey colde from the east. The weather changes almost every day and it makes it very disagreable. we came 10 miles. Crosed Sandey creek and Camped. This creek is about 8 rods{.} wide the water Shallow with a quick Sand bottom{.} If a teem stopes when crossing it immeaditley begins to sink and will soon settle to the hub. If it was not for the buffalo dung which is plenty we must frequently have suffered for want of fire. This evening is verrey colde--over Coats and mittens were used with pleasure

Friday 14 Colde east wind with a thunder Shouers from the south west. The bluffs Came down to the river a little ahead and we had to go round through the bluffs about fore miles, we found a verrey good pas{s}age through. The bluff Countrey is verrey broaken and sandey but good places can be found for cultivation. The rodes not so good to-day. Some a little to{o} Sandey & some a little to{o} wet. Came 8 miles. no wood{.} had to burn dung--

Saterday 15 wind north verey cold, raind a little, over Coats, buffelo robes & mittens are all in fashion now, we had to pas{s} over the Bluffs again about two miles then & struck the flats again. We went about 7 miles

Sunday 16 Cleared of{f} plea{sa}nt and more warm{.} Stopt all day. The Platt{e} River is wide. Shale water, full of Iselands. The water is like the Missoiearea {Missouri}. it has the appearance of dirty Soap suds. it occasioned by the Sand, the water is healthey and good

Monday 17 Fine warm day. we had to cros the bluffs about 2 miles and then struck the bottom again. we crost a number of fine Spring rivers{.} the ground was rather wet for cros more today{;} in Some places was hard. We went 12 3/4 miles and camped. the feed is gitting mutch better.

Tusday 18 We kept in the valley all day. warm day. Some soft roads. we have not sean a grove of timber for some dayes. went 15 3/4 miles this day.

Wensday 19 Rained some in the night{.} rainey a little this morning. We Soon had to aris{e} the bluffs again, they ware steep and entire day Sand{.} it was the hardest whealling that we had found{.} We struck the bottom again in about 1 1/2 miles. At noon soon commenced raining and continued a Colde rainey day{.} we traviled about 8 1/2 miles and campt--The sight of a tree is out of the question. It is seldom we See So mutch as a bush, today we begin to see Ceder bushes on the Side of the bluffs on the south side of the river

Thursday 20 Cloudey cool day. This day at noon we Came the place where the Oregan {Oregon} trail Strikes the South Side of the north fork, it is at ash holler, crost one creek about 4 rods wide quick sand bottom rather bad {.} Came 15 3/4 miles this day.

Friday 21 Cleared of{f} more pleasant and warm. went 15 miles, a little before we campt we saw som 8 indians. one came to us. he was a sue {Sioux}, well dressed and appeared verrey friendley. This was the first we had sean four a long time. No timber in this countrey.

Saterday 22 Weather good. about the middle of the afternoon we Came to the bluffs again, where they joined to the river. We had to finde a pass. The bluffs at this place Seamed to have be{e}n hove up in the utmost conf{u}sion, rocks, gravil and sand jist as it hap{pe}ned. We soon struck the bottoms again. and Camped{.} The bluffs of this place have the appearance some waste City with its crumbled wal{l}s and broakdown walls and ruined towers, Some of the walls Standing from 50 to 100 feet higher than the land around them, we went 15 1/2 miles this day

Sunday 23 We lay bye this day, it was verrey warm untill nearley night when the wind came from the north and in a short time, it began blow and rain verrery hard and was extremely cold. The wind blue a gale all night.

Monday 254 It was so Cold the we could hardley keep comfertable with over Coats and mittens on. it snowed a little. we went on{.} the rode was quite sandey this day. a little before night we discovered a partey of Indians on the outher side the river on horses comming & when they see we ware going to Camp they hoisted the Amarcan {American} flag. we ancered {answered} it with a white one. they then commenced crossing the river near fortey in number. They stoped on the bank, we camped near 1/2 mile back from the river. Some of them Came to us and was verrey friendley and some of them stayed all night. We went this day 16 1/2 miles.

Tusday 265 The moste of the Indians and femal{e}s Came to see and traid with us & traided meat, corn and bread and git roots &tc{.} some Horses were swap{p}ed and a number of traids made. They ware good looking and gentealey behaved people neither too bashful nor to{o} bolde but behaved like gentlemen & ladies. They ware dressed neat and clean and in the highus stile of Indian habbit{.} thear clothing which was mostley skins ware highley ornamented with beads and outher trimmin{g}s, and they appeared to posses as noble a spirit as ever animated the human brest. When we started on they recrost the river and went there way. They ware a band of the Sues {Sioux}. Today is warm. We went twelve miles and campt on rather wet ground

Wensday 276 This morning we passed the chimney rock. It is Situated on the South side of the river. It has the appearance of a chimney comming out of the Center of a round rooft house. The mound is about 2/3 the highth of the whole and the highth of the whole is about 270 ft high{.} The rocks have or mounds through this section have a Singular appearance{.} maney of them stand disconnected with the bluffs and one from one to 25 ft high and hav{i}ng verrey mutch the appearance of demolished Pallises {Palaces} or some magniflicient edefisses {edifices} and whose walls have gon{e} to ruin and decay. The chimney can be seen 20 or 30 miles. This day we went 12 1/2 miles and campt. We had not fuell sufficient to do oure cooking with. we had got above the Isleands that have wood and it is with difficulty that we can git fuel to make the little fire that we nead{.} We have ascertained the distance we travil Since the 9th of May by a machiene attached to Br {William} Clatens {Clayton's} waggon wheal--

Thursday 27 This day we passed the Scotch {Scotts} bluffs{.} the Same appearance of decayed magnificance is to be Seen at that as well as maney outher places. The day day was quite warm until near son set when it turned quite cool and rained a little{.} we traviled 13 3/4

Friday 28 Colde N.E. storm and we did start till near noon, the rain ceaced and we went on 11 1/2 miles and Camped. It was a Cold, cloudey disagre{e}able day. We found tollerable plenty of drift wood which was verrey execptable {acceptable} in a cold day. today we see a verrey fue trees on the South Side of the River which was a new Sight to us, for we had not seen aney timber growing for a long time onley a fue ceder bushes and they were mostley on the outher side of the river. We had not seen any Buffelo for Some dayes but we have kill{e}d a fue antilope.

Saterday 29 It was mistey and cold this morning and we did not start earley as usual. For some time past the brethren many of them had given way to an eavel Spirit Such as dancing too mutch playing Cards, chequers, dice &c and some would use foule language and neglected prayer and many things that was leading to eavel {evil} Such as joking, excess of laughter &c President {Brigham}Young Seeing the situation of the Camp improved an opertunity this morning after the rain had stilled to call the Camp togeather, he reproved them sharpley for there Conduct and warned them of the distress that would Come on them without repentance and reformation, and after mutch good instruction and admonitions he called on them to know weather they would reform, and the Camp all covenented to reform. He then appointed the next day for a day of fasting & prayer and for breaking bread. After noon we started and went 8 1/2 miles. It rain{e}d smartley before we Camped but stoped before sun set

Sunday 30 we attended to the dut{i}es of the day and a good Spirit seamed to prevail{.} a good maney expressed there determination to do better and considered the reproofe to be for the good of the Camp.

Monday 31 Frost this morning but was a fine day. In the after noon, we found the land verrey Sandey and hard wheeling. The soil was not productive{.} We went 16 3/4 miles and Camped on a small creek. The fead was rather scarce. We began to finde a little more timber{.} Scattering trees marked the coar{s}e of the river and bushes on the bank become more common{.} Today we came in sight of the Black hills at a distance of about 30 miles which layes a little above Laramy {Laramie}

Tusday {May} June 1 This was warm. This road was mostley verrey Sandey & harde whealing{.} The grass scarce. We reached Larramey {Laramie} a little before night. we traviled 12 1/2 miles on the oppisit Side from the foort & 522 miles to Winter Quarters

Wensday 2d We spent the day in making araingemants for Crossing the river as we could not pas{s} the Black hills on this Side. The traiders had a flat boat at this place and we chartered it to take our teams over for fifteen dollars. The traiders was verrey friendley to us. The Seasons are verrey back ward in this Countrey, the leaves ware onley bairley butting {budding} out, not half grown. It is Said they never have any sicknes{s} in this place. The atmosphear is verrey pure. We can see the high hills that is Said to be fiftey miles off and they do not appear more than 8 or 10. outhers that are 10 or 12 appear not more than 2 or 3 at the most.

Thursday 3d The wind Come, this morning quite colde from the east. The foort was built by the traiders and stands in the forks betwean the Laramey {Laramie} fork and the Platt{e}. The Platt{e} is about 20 rods wide at this place and the fort about half as large--

From the Loup fork to this place we Came a rout{e} that emigrant never Came before a distance of something like 390 miles--This day we cross the river and Should have finished but the after noon was showery

Friday 4th--We finished crossing and I went up out to the front which was about 1 1/2 miles from the Platt{e}. It is made raw brick about {-} the houses are attached to the wall on the in side and two stories high, one row of housuses {houses} run through the Center of the foort. There is about 40 men belonging to this post but the most of them are out a trading &c

At this point we strike the Organ {Oregon} trail{.} a Compeny of emegrants for that place are expected in today. At the foort they ask 25 cts per lb for Flor & dollar for coffe{e,} 1.00 for suger, 1.50 for tobaco, They ask about the same for Buffelo robes that they do in St Louis. I wrote a letter home from this place. The men three in number that belonged to the armey that had Come with us from winter quarters, took thear departer {departure} from Ft Puabelo {Pueblo} accompi{a}ned by Br A{masa Mason} Lyman. It is 180 miles near south, We ware joined by a small of brethren with there famelies that had winter{e}d at Puabelo, they had five waggons & one Cart with of stock, We left about noon went 8 1/2 miles and camped, The road was mostley in some places it was quite sandey and some little hilley. We kept along the river I mostley, The hills nicely dotted with yellow pine some fue ash and a little outher timber great sitsney {-} scattering along the river. Maney of the bluffs was composed of a substance about as hard as unbaked brick. and the stormes had worne them in curious shapes so that many of them had the appearance of the works of art. It rained a little in the after noon. I saw a number of samples of the sues {Sioux's} manner of depositing there dead, They role them in a blanket or skin and lash them in the forks or on the limb of a tree

Satterday 5th We had a pleasant morning{.} We kept along the river about 10 miles from the foort, then left it. and crost the hills, some of them was tollarble Steep, but the road was mostley good. The Comp. above mentioned is bound for Oregan {Oregon} of 11 waggons past us while we ware baiting at noon. We went a little past them at night to Camp, We had a little shower this afternoon and quite a shower in the night. We camped on a fine little Creek Called Cottonwood Creek. We traviled 17 miles this day. We finde plentey of wood for fires

Sunday 6th We held meeting in the fore noon and went 5 mile in the afternoon in order to be able to reach the next camping place the next day. This morning the Camp we had passed went past us & and before noon anouther Camp of 21 waggons passed us all ox teams and 3 to 5 yoak to the waggeon. We found considerab{l}e timber growing along the Creek. we went past the last Camp that pas{s}ed us about one mile and near the outher to Cam{p}t. we found the best at this place that we had found{.} on our Joureney--

Monday 7 about when we were baiting anouther Camp of Moovers for Oregan {Oregon} 13 waggens in number passed us, we have had to fix Some Sideling places and some steep pitches to day, We have passed over some tollarble hevey hills, we traviled 13 miles and camped on Willow Creek, The grass was good & and Considerable timber. We have had Some showers to day. We are now about oppiset the Laram{i}e Pieque of the Black hills. They are high and Snow is in plain view on the top of it. The timber on the streems is mostley Box elder and Cottonwood. Choak Cherrey & goos{e} beirrey bushes are plentey in many places. Wilde Sage is verrey abbundant, It resembles tame Sage in the form of the bush onley the grows some times 2 inches thick. The leaves are mutch narrower then the tame Sage and square at the point and notched on the end--

Thursday 8 We had maney hevey hills to cross doday {today} which ware mostley rockkey and graaviley. we crost which ware mostley drye{.} The day was colde, wind west. We went 15 1/2 miles and Camped on Swift Creek a fine streem with plentey of wood for camps.

Wensay 9 fine day. after going about 3 miles we crost Red bank creek, steep banks not verrey high; fine streem. some timber. This morning a Comp. was sent foregard to make some arrang{e}mants for crossing the Platt{e}. The road was not near so hilley to day as it was whare we traviled yesterday. Some deer or Antilope was killed by our hunters about every day. This day we went 19 1/2 miles and Camt on a fine streem called big timber creek

Thersday 10 Fine day, rather more hilley. Crossed a number of streams & scirted with timber, About 3 oclk we struck the Platt{e}. We went 17 3/4 miles and campt on a buitiful streem with considerable large timber of the species of Cotton wood with a long narrow leafe{.} a long coal bed was found in the bluffs 96 miles from ft John{.} our Camp was near the river--

{illegible} Friday 11 fine weather and mostley good roads{.} we killed plenty of Antilope and some Deer{.} By this time we had to deminish our allowance of Bread and eat more meat which came verrey hard on me for fresh meat alwayes gave me the bowel complaint. This day we traviled 17 miles and camped on the river bank. thear we over took one of the Oregan {Oregon} Comps. that had gone past us. they ware crossing the river but we went up further to cross. afternoon and quite a shower in the night. We traviled on a fine little streem called Cotton wood Creek. we now found wilde sage in a abundance, we traviled this day 17 miles, we fine plentey of wood for fires on the Creek

Saterday 12 My helth has b{ee}n verrey poor today. we had tollarble good road, we went 11 1/4 miles and reached the main foord{.} The watter was high that we could not foord it. The men that we had sent to make arrangemants for crossing had overtaken the first Comp. of the Oregan {Oregon} comp. and had taken theire over goods over with a leather Boat that we had brought with us for which they received a fair reward in provision which was mutch neaded by us. We camped on the River bank. The bluffs laying south with peaks of Snow in Spots near the top. The bluffs were nearley covered with pine, To us it looked like bushes and the top of the bluffs looked to be about 1 1/2 miles distant. Some of our men went to get some snow &c and found it to be from 5 to 6 miles and the scrubrey {shrubbery} was large pine trees. Objects in this countrey appear cloas at hand when they are at a grate distance. This Foord is 125 3/4 miles from ft John.

Sunday 13 We had meeting as usual{.} Bro B{.} Young{,} H{eber C.} Kimbel & O{rson} Pratt gave mutch good instruction--The provision above mentioned was divided among the Camp and ammounted 5 1/2 lb flour{,} 2 lb meal and about one of baken {bacon} all of which mutch neaded by us for our provision was gitting short, Truley the hand of the Lord was in it and he has blessed us all the way thus far

Monday 14 We made rafts of Pine & Fir rails the {that} we got from the mountains or bluffs on which we crossed the waagon and took the goods in the lether boat. In the afternoon we had a thunder shower with hevey winds that broak us off

Tusday June 15th We crossed what we could but the watter was quite high and rizing{.} The River at this place is about 1/2 of a mile wide and runs fast so that we have to towe our rafts up more than one mile. Comp{a}nies of emegrants was coming near at hand and one comp Had allready ariven and they had no means for crossing and wanted us to cross them over, So partley for acomedation {accommodation} and partley for the pay we concludes to have a Small Comp. stop with the boat for a length of time and to make a sort of ferrey boat by making two canoes and fastening them togeather &c to make it more covieant {convenient} crossing,

Accordingley on Wensday 16 a Comp. was sent to git the timbers which was a number of miles off and the remainder continued crossing over as before. At evening the Comp. returned with timbers for two canoes. The wind continued to blow down the river which made it handy crossing.

Thursday 17--We finished crossing a little after noon and then commenced crossing the outher Comp. while a Set of hands was working on the new boat. Before night anout Comp. Came up. By Sun rise next morning the first Comp. was all over. This after noon it grew cold so that over Coats was worn

Thurs day 18 This morning everey thing was covered with frost, but the morning was pleasant and warmer, We spent the crossing the emegrants

Saterday 19 We left a Comp. to attend the ferrey and started on. We left the river and found a hilley countrey tho not bad{.} we went 21 1/2 miles and Camped in a place without mutch grass, and all the wood we could git through this section was the ded wilde Sage and grees root or small cedar that looks to me like hemlock

Sunday 20 For want of gras for our teems we went on, we found some small patches of gras and some water in several places. We came to the Willow Springs about noon which is a good Camp ground for a small Comp. We rose a high hill and from the top we could See banks of Snow south on the mountains a considerable distance off. The hill was was gravely and the bottoms sandey. This day we went 20 1/4 miles and camped. It was near dark.

Monday 21 Some frost this morning near the the creek. We passed a number of salt ponds this fore noon as the salt Covers the ground where the water is dried away. a bushel could be geathered in a fue hours, It has a differant taste from Common salt. It tast{e}s as if mixed with hemlock and it will ancer in sted of salerates to rais bread with{.} We have come South direct towards the mountains for about 12 miles. We reached Sweatt {Sweet} water at Independance Rock about noon. and according to our measurement it is 174 1/2 from Laramie or Ft John. Some of the Comp. went back at noon and got pails ful{l} of salt or salarates which proved good to rais{e} bread, This after noon we cros{s}ed the creek which was about three rods wide and 2 1/2 ft deep. We went up the valle{y} betwean the two ranges of mountains and turned west. The valley affords but little grass onley on the margin of the Creek. The production is mostley wilde sage & grees root. Where we camped which is about 7 miles the rock, the Creek runs throug{h} a notch in the mountains onley wide enough to pas{s} through a distance of 40 rods or more and the rock standing almost perpenticular or about 200 ft high. It is a singular place and a fine Situation for miles. This is called the devels {devils} gate. We traviled this day 15 1/4{.} The Countrey is mostley sand or gravil which made it verrey harde wheeling--Our provision of bre{a}d stuff growing short{.} {Lyman} Curtice and I concluded to ration our selves to one pinte of meal or flour per day each--

Tusday 22 We traviled 20 3/4 miles and camped on the banks of the river. The grass was tollerable good. The weather was verrey warm and plenty of Snow in plain Sight on the high hills--or what is Called Sweet water mountains.

Wensday 23 It has been verrey sandey & hevey whealing today. We now Can see the Green river mountains and they look verrey high. We traviled to day 17 miles and got a verrey good camping place excepting timber{.} The green river mountain is covered with snow. That as well as the Sweetwater mountain is a part of the Rockkey {Rocky} mountains

Thursday 24 we traviled 17 3/4 miles today before we found a spot of grass suffi{c}ient to bait our teams on. by that time it was near 2 oclk. the roads was sandey and our teems tired and no outher camping place being within 4 miles we concluded to stop till anouther day--

Friday 25 This day we passed over some high hills. Some of them ware Covered on the tops with rock Standing partley on the edge at an incline of about 45 degs. Outhers ware hard gravil, at times we would strike the river and crossed its several times. we found some spots of grass as usual by the river and on outher little streems, but no timber onley scruberey {shrubbery} . The day was Colde and verrey windey. We ware traviling amidst the Rockey {Rocky} Mountains tho we had not reached the highest point. We found Snow and ice in differant places along the road. we traviled this day 20 1/2 miles. This is a cold Frozen part of the world and is far from being fit for humane beings to live in. We frequentley passed emegrating Comp. and ware frequentley passed by them.

Saterday June 26 This is a Cold morning. every thing Covered with frost and Ice in the water pails. It soon became warm again onley wind was colde tho a light breaes {breeze}. At noon we came to Sweet water again and crost it and stop{p}ed to bait. The Snow lay in heapes under the north side of the bluffs whene we stop{p}ed 5 or 6 ft deep. the gras standing green close by it and dandelions in full bloom. Some fue straw beireys and goosebeirey, ware in bloom, we traviled this day 18 3/4 miles and Camped on the banks of the Sweat {Sweet} water again, We ware now in the pass of the mountains, a little a head of us the water{s} run west. We are Camped betwene the table rock on the south and green River mountain on the north on the north, they being about 20 mines {miles} ahead. The face of the earth is mutch leveller and smoother through this section than it has be{e}n for some days past. xxxx From the Pass to Ft. John according to oure masure is 227 1/4 miles

Sunday June 27 The morning is pleasant but cool and frostey. The mounta{i}n laying a little to the north of us covered with snow looks rather odd at this season of the year. The Scarcity of gras{s} compel{l}ed us to go on. We met a Comp. from Origon {Oregon} and one olde mountainear who gave us not verrey favorable account of the countrey around Bear river or the salt lake. The day was warm and the land rather rol{l}ing and loos{e} gravil which made it rather hard wheeling. We went 15 1/4 miles and camped where grass was verrey scarce. The man above mentioned was by by the name of Harpir, he said he had lived in this countrey 20 years.

Monday 28 Warm day fine rodes tollerab{l}e level. This afternoon we met Capt Bridger of Bridger foort. he gave us more information in regard to the Salt lake countrey and all the sur{r}ounding countrey and the account was verrey favorable. We traviled this day 15 1/4 miles and campted on the Little Sandey which we had crost a little above. it about 3 rods wide & 2 ft deep or a little more--

Tusday June 29 Warm day. The countrey was quite level and the Wind River Mountain was in plain vieue on the right, the {blank space} mountain {illegible} and the {illegible} mountains & lay W all of them covered with snow, various hills were in plain vieu, Our coars was about S.W. and a fine road the most of the day. We traviled till dark in order to git to gras{s} & water. We crost the big Sandey at noon. it was about 6 rods wide & about 2 1/2 ft deep, {w}e camped on its banks this night after traviling 23 3/4 mile

Wensday 30 warm day, We struck the green River at noon 8 miles travil. It is scirted with bitter cotton wood of good Sise, We had to make rafts to cros{s} on which were made this afternoon. Green River is about 62 1/4 miles from the Pas{s}. This day Bro Brannon came to us from Callifornia {California} he brought a good report from the countrey and the brethren in that countrey.

July Thursday Thursday July 1 we Commenced crossing the river, This river is about 40 rods wide and the currint is heavey{.} it was a harde job to cross over--

Friday 2 & Saterday 3 About noon we finished and went on 3 miles down the river about south.

Sunday 4. We camped stayed at this place and sent five men back to meet the camp that was Comming after us to take dispa{t}ches and guide them on. The weather is warm. a good meney of the Camp has be{e}n taken sick within a week past. They was taken sick with a pa{i}n in the head and back. attended with a feaver. They git over it mostley in 2 or 3 days--Today a part of of a detachmant from the mormon Bat{t}alion came up with us, the remainder of is a shorte distance behinde. They were on their way to Fort Bridger on business. We found the muskitoes verrey thick on this river. Previous to this time we found but fue, and I have not seen scarcley aney black {g}nats or green hedad {headed} flies since we started from home. what is commonley called wilde sage that I gave a discription of directly afternoon we struck the black hills. I think is more propirley wilde worm wood and in some places it grows 8 ft high and 6 inches thick, but mostley it is not more than 2 ft high and 3 inches thick. the de{a}d stocks sup{p}lies us well for wo{o}d--We struck the S.E. Corner of Origan {Oregon} at the tree, at the time we were in the age of Calliforina: {California}

Monday 5--we kept down green river a fue miles then le{f}t it and struck over on Ham's fork, campt. traviled 20 mile

Tusday 6 Struck on Blacks fork. Went 18 1/2

Wnsday 7 Crost Blacks fork a number of times and camped near Ft brid{g}er{.} It consists of three log rooms and a small yard inclosed with pickets. The Bare {Bear} River Mountains are about 25 miles south tho they appe{a}r to be not more than 5 and well covered with Snow. we came today 17 3/4{.} I was taken verrey violentley sick on Monday with the Complaint that was in the Cam

{.} I do not know as I ever expearanced more pain in the same lingth of time in my life than I did through monday night. It was mostley in my hips & back. I am nowe on the mend but am hardley able to walk{.} There is new cases abo every day and what will be the end the Lord onley knowes. The stoney ground that we have to cros{s} is verrey hard on those that are sick and in gerate {great} pain

Thursday 8 We stop{p}ed all day{.} frost this morning{.} some new cases of sickness

Friday 9 we traviled 19 miles and camped on muddey. The road has be{e}n hilley & stooney. My health is on the mend but I am quite feeble.

Saterday 10 Some bad hills and verrey stoney. Some small fine vallies{.} went 14 mile

Sunday 11 lay by all day.

Monday 12 not quite so bad hills, cros{s}ed Bare {Bear} Creek. the soile looks better more pass and earbiage {herbage} on the hills. We had found Scat{t}ering flax for some days past. President Young was taken sick today and stop{p}ed with a fue outher waggeons where we stop{p}ed at noon. We traviled this day 16 1/2 miles. we began to finde grass quite plentey{.} my health remains verrey poor so that I am hard{l}ey able to walk. It was thought best to send on a fue teems and men to look out and fix the road and the remanider with the most of the sick to stop a day or two. accordingley 23 teems started a little after noon.

we took the valley of Wells fork and followed it down.. we went about 8 miles and camped, our masureing waggon stayed so we had to g{u}es{s} our distance

Wensday 14 We found scattering flax of a good size and quality and considerble of something that resembled wheat but on cloas examination it appeared more like chess. The valley was furtile {fertile} but verrey narrow and the hills on boath sides ware several hundred feet high and on the right hand it was rock. In maney places it was difficult passing. a little before night we struck Wavers {Weber's} fork and camped. We came about 14 miles

Thursday 15 we followed dow{n} the val{l}ey which was narrow with high hills on boath sides til{l} we came to the Canion, but choosing if possable to find a better pas{s} and to avoide passing down some ten miles in the head of the river we stop{p}ed for the day and sent out men in differant wayes to find a better way if possable. We came today about 6 miles. The men succeided in finding Roads & trails over the hills. We followed up a revean which was {illegible}

Friday 16 We found our way way up a revean to the top of the hill verrey difficult to assent for about 7 miles and a rise of about from 4 to 500 feet. we then disended anouther revean easeley as bad and camped after traviling about 12 mile {Lyman} Curtice {Curtis} was taken sick this evening and I was not hardley able to sit up which made thing look rather gloomey--

Saterday 17 The ice was as thick window glas{s} this morning. Br O{rson} Pratt & {John} Brown went on to examin{e} the rout{e} and outhers went to work fixing bad places. In the afternoon we started on and cros{s}ed over a hill and Came on to a creek and followead it up. we had to cros{s} it a number of times which was hard to cross. we went about 6 miles

Sunday 18 frost & ice this morning the weather is verrey hot through the day, we stop{p}ed to rest today and Br Pratt delivered a good discourse by way of incourigemant &c

Monday 19 Frost & ice this mornng{.} we followed up the creek south and cros{s}ed it 8 or 9 times. It is truley a difficult passage. the land on the streems is rich, We came about 7 miles this day. goos bierys are plentey in maney places on these creeks.

Friday 20 We left canion {canyon} creek this morning and struck up a revien. our Journey for a number a day had ben desolate. the mountains on baoth sides was verey high and the revien so crooked that we could not see but a short distance and it looked as tho we were shout {shut} up in a gulf without aney chance for ascape {escape.} The ground was quite rising for five miles. we found more timber to day than we had for hundreds of miles back but the most of it had be{e}n killed by the fires. After we got to the top of the hill we had a long a steep hill to go down. we treaviled this day about 7 miles--

Wensday 21 We soon left that revein and cros{s}ed a verrey hevey hill about 1/2 mile up. we then des{c}ended down into anouther revian, we went about 7 miles this day

Thursday 22 This morning a host of the Camp that we had left came up with us and outhers had to stop because of sickness. our moove was sloe for it took all the able spair hands from 1/2 to 3/4 of the time to fix the road so that we could possabley git along. It took us till fore oclock P.M. to fix the road and go about fore miles. We had to pas{s} through a Canion that was full of timber mostley maple of a small groath and the mountains came almost togeather at the bottom. But when we got through{,} it seamed like bursting from the confine{s} of a prison. We came it ful vieu of the S.E. part of the grait {great} Salt Lake that we had be{e}n so long looking for. It was about 30 miles off. A valley of about eight miles wide lay before us the most of it covered with good gras{s} and various outher vegetables. but timber was hard{l}ey to be seen onley up in the mountains we could se{e} some. We soon camped and wated for Br Pratt and outhers who had gon{e} on in the morning to explore the countrey in the vicinity of our entrance. who when they returned reported that they found but little timber onley what was in the mountains--

Friday 23 We went a short distance to a small groav {grove} and cambed {campt}. Br P. P. Pratt called the Camp togeather & masures was entered into for puitting in oure potatoes earley corn, buck wheat, turnips, &tc. Plowes was started and some planting don{e} that day. We found the soile to be good and the air {he..} and that we were out of the reach of our enemies and that the countrey was well watered with good watter and that God had blessed us on oure Journey verry mutch. none of us had died and those that had be{e}n sick was mostley about well--According to oure m{e}asure we were 115 miles from ft Bridger and from ft John 512 and about 1070 miles from wint{er} Quarters

Saturday 24 About noon Br. Young and the remainder of the Camp cam{e} up which gave us mutch joy and we had a time of rejoysing together.

{Edited version published in An Enduring Legacy, 12 vols. {1978-89}, 9:200-209. Typescript also available at Church Archives, in Levi Jackman, Reminiscences and journal 1851-1867, 26-40. Scanned images of diary and text transcription also available on "Trails of Hope: Overland Diaries and Letters, 1846-1869" web site,}