Transcript for Luke W. Gallup reminiscences and diary, 1842 May-1891 March, 122-41
Mon. [June]10  Rose early— had a long hunt for our old cow Pink, and at 7 o’clk AM we were ready to start & bid adieu to the old place in Mo. with all its varied scenes. We shook hands with those not soon to follow us; and Br. Daniel was much affected & sorrowful at our parting. He hated to see us go & leave & tears rolled down his face. We were soon rolling away on the road & I felt to say adieu to scenes behind. Fell in company with 6 other wagons & kept with them about 2 hours & halting, we drove on & saw them no more. Crossed the new bridge on Nishnabottana & found a stopping place by a house 3 miles above Argyles ferry
11th journeyed on & took a noon spell near the house of Mr. Rose—then drove on till we came to Elm Creek where we passed the 2d night—gathered a mess of pig weed for greens[.] No inhabitant lived there.
12th A 4 mile drive brot us to the houses on Keg Creek—called at the grist mill & got our flour & meal, paying the money for grinding it. A short
13th Moved one mile S.W. & joined 6 other wagons & were 1½ m. from the Bethlehem ferry, then went over there to see what was going on & saw Wilford Woodruff for the first time. He was organizing a company for the plains.
14th Made a move with our wagon ½ m. farther S. & were opposite the lower road leading thro the timber to the ferry —were now on Mr. Johnsons’ land, & by permission we repaired up an old yard to keep our cattle in at night. Went to the river & assisted the ferry man two trips over. Father [Daniel] Cook & family arrived near sunset. He wished to know what was going on over there to the ferry so we went. I bought a 5 gallon water keg of Br. Woodruff.
15th started with our teams & went to the ferry & found many cattle there to be ferried over before we could go. A heavy wind, made hard crossing & so we turned & went back on the middle road thro’ the timber & round to our starting place. Father Cook sold a heifer named Mille for $8, to Mr. Cunningham.
Sun. 16 Went to the river, returning found Aunt Betsey and her husband Aaron Dolph who had come to make us a parting visit. They staid till next morn. & (and) we had a sociable time.
Mon. 17th Again went to the river with our teams & made out to get across about noon. I then went back & purchased a few things—was gone about 3 hours. We then ascended the hill from the river & found some tight pulling. On the hill we found Capt. Woodruff & Mr. Carter. I agreed, & took on some glass & nails for Br. Woodruff & received 102 lbs sugar & 20 lbs coffee on payment & the ballance of our pay $4.15 to be Pd. in G. S Lake City. 145 lbs corn meal in Bethlehem cost us $3. pr. cwt. I now commenced a new note book dated at our crossing. Our freight being on we drove 6 miles from the river & made our first camping place over the Missouri & we expected Br. Woodruff to organize a company here & take charge of it.
18th Some wagons got along & camped on the opposite side of the Stream by us, & at last Br. Woodruff arrived & camped there too. They had some heavy loaded wagons over there with freight & it seemed quite uncertain when they would get ready to move.
19th The comp. where we were finally began to grow impatient to move West & so concluded to form a comp[any] of our own. We held a meeting to arrange matters & accordingly elected our officers. The vote was unanimous for the following officers.
Justus Morse Capt, John Banks, A. J. Stewart for his councilors. L.W. Gallup Clerk and John Banks for Chaplain.
Br. Woodruff was present & gave us some counsel—thought we should be able to reach the Valley in safety though we were running some risk; & sd he did not feel disposed to counsel or advise in the matter—he probably tho’t it would do no good if contrary to our wishes & if so he was about right. He requested a list of persons &c. belonging to our Com. which we gave him—as follows—
No. Wagons [and] Names of Owners
2 Wagons, J. Morse
2 Wagons, A. J. Stewart
1 Wagon, John Banks
1 Wagon, Daniel Cook
1 Wagon, L. W. Gallup
1 Wagon, Thomas Winter
1 Wagon, David Webb
Nine wagons & 41 persons in all. Sixteen male members were capable of doing military duty. We had One horse, Seventy Two head of cattle, Six dogs & 4 doves—Also our implements of war were 11 guns, 2 pistols & 3 swords
June 20th We commenced our march to cross the plains[.] As soon as we got over the small bridge between us & Woodruffs camp 3 Cal. wagons left his com. & joined ours. At 6 m[iles] out we passed by a camp of 12 wagons. Saw by the roadside the first new made grave. Sprinkling of rain & showery away South. Another 6 m. & halted for dinner, where we were joined by a 13th wagon owned by Mr. Norton. Started on again at 3 P.M. Were detained a short time crossing Weeping Water or Willow Cr. & camped on its W. side at sunset. 16 m. 1st day.
21st We met & held a council before starting to arrange matters & make our organization more perfect. It was voted that Br. John Banks should write an article of agreement for our com. to be governed by; whereupon he wrote the following.—
“This certifies that the undersigned mutually agreed to form into a company, to travel together to the City of the G. S. Lake, pledging themselves to abide by such rules & regulations as should be adopted by a majority of votes of the whole company—such com. being on all occasions consulted.
2nd That the Capt. shall be fully empowered to give such instructions as he may deem requisite, & to command & direct the movements of the company from day to day without control, save that he be assisted by two councilors whom he may consult as circumstances require.—
3rd That this company shall not consist of more than 15 wagons except by the unanimous approbation of the owners of such wagons
4th any person or persons forming a portion of this company willfully breaking any rule which may now or hereafter be adopted, resisting the authority & refusing to obey the command of the Capt. shall no longer be permitted to carelle [corral] or partake of the privileges arising from this organization.” This article was signed by—Justus Morse, John Banks, A. J. Stewart, Daniel Cook, David Cook, David H. Neal, David Webb, Luke W. Gallup, Thomas Winter Jr., Ja. W. Neal, Rey Ambroise, Sam’l Huffman, & John C. Neal
Our former proceedings were again sanctioned unanimously in relation to comp. officers. Some others were expecting to sign the above document but neglected to do it for some cause. Names of them were—Nathan Orton, James Carrigan, Wm. H. Mc.Gary, J. H. Gilpatrick, John Orton, Harvey Morse, Riley Morse, Geo. Staples, Wm. Hooley, John Neal, James Neal Jr. and Thomas Winter Jr.
And for convenience we divided the company into 3 divisions, under Morse, Banks & Stewart. Each division taking its turn every third night on guard. Other rules were adopted but never written.
We got started off at 8 AM. At noon we got to a creek where we had to help each other up the bank. Here we saw 5 new made graves & one cell dug all ready for some one. A mile farther on found another bad crossing place & at both places we worked with spades & axes to mend the road. A stray calf was found & drove along. Country broken & hilly, scarcity of timber[.] camped at 6 P.M.—13 miles—29 in all, for the two days
Sat. 22nd Another stray calf was drove into camp this morning to be taken along. We rolled on till noon & then laid by on account of a rainy P.M. After the thunder shower it was some cooler. We had a fine ridge road & some good scenery & an excellent camp ground. A Government train of 27 wagons camped near by Just before dark. We were again near the Weeping Water—a small amount of timber lined the banks & gooseberrys were found. 8. m. Total 37.
Sun. 23 A rainy morn prevented an early start & was late before we crossed the Creek—then 2 hours longer it rained. followed by cloudy day with a fair breeze of wind. Selected a camp ground by the road side one mile from Salt Cr. An ox that died lately was not far off. Just after dark a man (a stranger) passed the camp on whom a suspicion of evil design rested. On asking him where he was going, sd. he was bound for Salt Lake. He had a bundle of clothes on his back. Mr. A.J. Stewart thought he resembled a certain horse theif who resided part of his time among the Indians. It was then moonlight & some of our company wanted to have him arrested & put under guard for the night but nothing was done. 12 m. to-day—total 49.
24th Just at daybreak our camp was a little bit alarmed by two of
25 Up & down hill road for 10 miles & our teams suffered for want of water. P.M. took in some wood & water near an old camp ground Saw 6 graves there, & heard some talk of Cholera. Thunder shower at 6 o’clk in the eve. followed by a rainy night. Camped in open prairie. 14 m. total 72.
26th A.M. showery & bad going. Light groves at a distance on both sides of us. P.M. fair & fine scenery in all directions. A lone wagon with horses overtook & camped with us bound for Salt Lake. 15 m. total 87
27th The lone team of 3 men (ones name was Beech) started & we saw them no more. At noon we saw the first Antelope. At 3 P.M. met 3 wagons from the Valley—a level & good road—scarcity of water—the landscape view was broad & extensive. Camped 2 m. from Platte bottom—found some strawberrys. 20 m total 107.
28th Thunder shower about daylight, & the wind blew down one of our tents. At 11 AM. passed Walls com[pany]. They were washing & airing their things, & sickness was in their midst—some had already died, 10 since they started, had lost. Some of our Macedonia folks were there. Br. [Horace] Spaffords family had lost most of any. They called on us for medicine & we let them have some; & then went on—suffered some for want of water & the great heat. Learned that Br. [Warren] Foot[e]s Co. was ahead Tedious going the last mile on acct. of late rains. 6 P.M. reached our camp ground not far from the river, & by a stream whose clear & sandy bottom invited some of us to go in & bathe, which was an excellent treat. 13 m. total 120.
29th Last night was stormy with sharp & vivid lightning & every tent was blown down for the wind was heavy. Today our Co. did some washing & gave the cattle a rest. P.M. Walls Co. passed on by us. Our Co. thus far have enjoyed good health—only slight sickness & nothing serious. Br. Banks & some of fathers folks have been slightly unwell but are getting better. Had some good singing in the eve. by Br. Banks & Webb. Appearance of fair weather yet had another blow out before the next morn with light rain. Began our mile Count 6 m. West of the Mo. river. So we must be now 126 m on the route.
30th cloudy morn. & very light rain. The Valley Mail passed, on their way East & Robert Campbell came to see us ½ m. off the road with a letter from B. F. Stewart to his Brother in Our Co. The Mail Co. had 2 wagons & the following persons going on a mission to Eng. & all well—Isaac C. Height, Wm. Burton, John O. Angus, A. M. Harmon, C. V. Spencer, J. M. Works, J. W. Crosby & Robert Campbell—also Thomas Grover & family bound for the States & sd to be sick.
Some dissatsifaction appeared in our Co. in the P.M. The majority manifested a disposition to move on, but the Capt. & a few others were for staying a while longer. Held a council towards eve. & divided the men in the three divisions equally making 8 in each. The 1st Div. herd the cattle & stands guard the first 24 hours. & then the other Div. in their turn – the Capt. still controlling the Com. as before.
J. Morse, H. Morse, R. Morse, A. Ray, Wm. H. Mc. Gary, N. Orton, J. Orton, & J. Carrigan.
John Banks, G. Staples, T. Winter, D. Webb, Ja. Neal, D. H. Neal, J. Neal Jr. & John Neal.
A. J. Stewart, S. Hoffman, L. W. Gallup, T. Winter Jr., Daniel Cook, D. Cook, J. H. Gilpatrick & Wm. Hooly
Mon 1st A.M. cool & Cloudy & one light shower. Had many miry slews to cross & Br. Webbs wagon tongue was broke in getting out of one—only got 14 m. total 140.
2nd The road got better in the P.M. becoming dryer. At 10 A.M. we got along side the river & continued near it the remainder of the day. The Platte bottom from bluff to bluff appears now about 20 m. wide. Saw many small islands in the river. Some beautiful landscape scenes. Had some musquetoe at our eve. camp ground for our amusement.
This eve. Br. Banks went to the Capt. & tendered his resignation & would not take charge of his division any longer as things didn’t suit him. 20 m total 160.
July 3rd A calf was lost this morn. Short pitches & sloughs made bad going in places. Warm & a small cloud gathered overhead at noon & thunder for a while but no rain where we were. Plenty of wood on the Platte islands & opposite bank. Romantic scenery along the river & beautiful views for the landscape painter. Our camp ground we tho’t would some day make a fine site for a city. 20 m total 180.
Thurs. 4th of July Our road was an up & down one to-day—fire wood scarce but plenty on the islands out of reach. Cattle suffered some from excessive heat. Plenty of musquitoes visited us in the eve & night & were quite free & made us feel not quite so independant. 4 young men in search of lost cattle slept in our Camp
5th Got a late start on account of lame cattle. The Neals received $2. for the use of 2 horses to hunt lost cattle by another Com. Road tolerable good yet we got over only 12 m. total 212
6th Moved slow & steady. A spirit of dissatisfaction is on the increase in our Co. & if no better order there may be a break up. Our horsemen went ahead & Camped with a small Co. of 8 wagons 3 m. in advance. Road level & good. This eve began to use Buffalo chips for the first time. 15 m. total 227
Sun 7th The Bottom land is now very wide and extensive. Eight miles out halted for noon a short distance opposite New Ft. Kearney.
We are on our way to Salt Lake & having a few spare moments at this station I hasten to give you a short sketch. We have a Com. of 13 wagons, 25 men & 35 women & children. We have 10 horses 110 head of cattle &c. &c. Left Mo. [Missouri] river June 17th[.] Mormon emigration commenced to roll out the first of last Mo. [Month] Most of the Californians started in Apr. & May Some of whom had to return though they took feed for their teams we have been told.
Crowds of wagons were around Bethlehem on the Mo. this season waiting to get over, & have waited, some of them a week before their turn to cross. 50 wagons make a regular company & Capt’s. are chosen for 10, Tens Fifties & Hundreds to see & care for them that all goes right.
We traveled over 100 miles before reaching Platte bottom which so far as I have seen was from 15 to 25 miles wide. The first 50 miles had a narrow strip of timber along its banks & sometimes only a narrow row, & a few broken places or none at all. And many a fine landscape view we could see. The Platte in appearance seems twice the size of Upper Mississippi yet may be inferior—is muddy like the Mo. with a sandy shallow water. Has many islands covered with shrubs & bushes. The second 50 miles by the river saw more woodland chiefly on large islands. & good locations for Nine Sec. farms on the South side.
Then followed a few questions about the folks.—Long life to you & a merry one with peace & contentment when you seek for it in the right way.
Very Truly your Friend Luke Wm. Gallup.
very little order prevailed in our Camp, yet rolled on 5 miles farther & after some trouble about it, we camped not far from the river. This evening Capt. J. Morse resigned his command of the Co. & called on Stewart to take charge who also resigned his office & so the company was disbanded. 13 m. 240
Mon 8th Our Company has broke up at last after a considerable disagreement, & this morn. J. Morse & his 2 wagons drove on & left us. At noon Capt. Roundys Co. of 26 wagons went by & was followed by Orton & Carrigan who had one wagon. These 2 men were always finding fault & so were glad to get rid of them. Capt. Morse had the habit of swearing some & did not seem to have sufficient control over the company. Br. Banks & Webb had each a lame animal & the latter had only two large black oxen.
At 2 P.M. the 3 California wagons rolled on being unwilling to assist the weak teams. They had got tired of stopping & our pursuasions to help the weak was of no avail. Winters followed them without a word said; he was another disatisfied person—complained of having more than others to do & on the contrary side, from the the capt. Stewarts teams also left with the Californians as they all had a herd of cattle that ran together. He promised to use his endeavors to get the others to wait for us, so we could overtake them a few miles ahead; but we never overtook them. Mc. Gary & Hoffman quit the Co. & hired out to drive team for a Government train, & now only 4 wagons remain. Stormy night.
9th J. Gilpatrick called to see us on his way back to the Ft. Reported Stewart & others ten miles ahead. He returned & staid all night with us, & went on next morn after the Co. Webb found a speculator (who farms it here on a large scale to supply the Fort) to whom he traded his big black ox (lame) for a good sized black cow.—Warm night—a host of musquetoes tormented us & got so bad that about 1 o.clk in the night we had to loose our cattle from our wagons, to give them some chance for their lives.
10th started on with our 4 wagons at 6 A.M. & drove 15 m. 255.
11th A Thunder shower at 1 A.M. followed by an increase of musquetoes & before daylight our cattle started back on the road. I pursued in the darkness & overtook them 2 miles away—Day part cloudy—halted about sunset & had swarms of musquetoes to fight in the night, & suffered considerable from their depredations. 17 m. total 272.
12th foggy & very warm morn. Had 2 hours nooning. At 4 P.M. overtook 3 heavy loaded Government wagons going to Ft. Larime in charge of Mr. Wm. Tuttle. They were resting when we came along & had been all day for they traveled all last night. We joined companies & went on together, & at sunset camped in the open prairie away from the river—Passed by a lame ox to-day whose chance was good to die & furnish feed for the wolves. Distant thunder showers to-day—a comfortable night breeze kept off the musquetoes. 16 m. 288.
13th started at 7 A.M. An hour after found a scrap of writing by Gilpatrick saying they were in Roundys Co., & desired us to hurry on & overtake them, telling us we could soon do it—that they had good health &c. & were but a day ahead. But few musquitoes at night. 16 m. 304.
Sun. 14th Thunder shower at 2 A.M. David Cook hired out to drive team for Mr. Wm. Tuttle at $20. pr. mo. At noon found some wood & took in a supply, but found plenty of wood & water at our eve. camp ground E. wind after a cloudy day. Had a cattle hunt after dark a little extra. 15 m. 319.
15th At 6 A.M. a team with 4 mules passed by us in a great hurry going East. We held on & had a washing day. At 3 P.M the mail for Salt Lake passed going West. Br. O. Hyde & others were aboard. Purchased of them a No. of the Frontier Guardian. Some of our party went out to the Bluffs on a hunt & one of them Shot at 2 Buffalo but it did no good. cloudy & light sprinkling; clear sunset.
16th quit our encampment at 10 A.M. & shortly after met a Government train of 6 horsemen & 4 teams with mules. Some scattering trees along the road. At 2 P.M. we met a man from Foots Co. in search of a lost animal. Said their Co. was 15 miles ahead attending the sick & hunting Buffalo. 14 m total 333.
17th We saw our first Buffalo which came quite near the wagons,—many Buffalo paths & grass very short. Soft limestone to be seen on the points of the low Bluffs. Was hindered part of the P.M. by one of our men shooting a Buffalo. It was 2 miles behind their train so a yoke of cattle were sent back to haul it into camp but when they got to the place it was not to be found. 11 m. total 344.
18th By neglect of our herdsman this morn the cattle strayed over 2 miles & out of sight & had to hunt for them quite awhile Shortly after a Buffalo was shot (this time for certain) detaining us a while longer. Just before noon we saw swarms of Buffalo—not less than 3000. At noon another Buffalo was shot & its meat being better the other was thrown away. It got unequally divided for some acted hogish & took all the best part & so the ballance of the company would not take the remnant & some went off hunting again.
At 5 P.M. we saw the greatest sight of all. Being on a rise of ground we saw about 8000 at one view. We saw about 15000 in all this day. In the P.M. our course was towards the river & found a good spring to camp by. An Oregon Com. of 3 wagons & plenty of horses & mules camped with us half an hour after stopping. 11 m. Total 355
19th It was sd to be a hoggish game some folks helping themselves to all the best Buffalo meat but the most of it spoilt on their hands & they had to throw it away soon after, the weather was so warm for it would not keep over 2 or 3 days. A drive of 3 miles bro’t us along side the river & then we passed among the Bluffs & had a slightly hilly road for 5 miles after which it was level as usual. To day the bottom land appeared only 3 or 4 m. wide. Saw some Buffalo this AM. & last night at the springs they kept up a terrible bellowing all night. Father Cook found a lame ox & drove it along but the 2d night being outside the carelle it strayed off & we saw it no more. 15 m. total 370.
20thAt 10, AM we met 5 teams from Larimie. Met 2 wagons at noon supposed to be Californians returning. A shower at dark. 18 m. 388.
21st The camp ground of the Oregon Co. was 1 m. ahead of ours & we got started first & so overtook them but they soon left us behind. P.M. passed a Gov. Train camped half mile off the road They had 4 wagons & upwards 100 head of cattle near the river. The Bluffs to-day have a very gradual slope down to the river bottom which is quite narrow. Some Musquitoes to trouble us. 15 m. total 403.
Mon. 22nd Reached the Platte ford at noon. Six horse teams overtook us at the ford part of whom had left Br. Woodruffs Co at Kearney with 30 wagons. They reported an accident in his co. by lightning—one man & several cattle were killed. The river here is half a mile wide & the ford ¾ of a mile. Some of us had a tedious time of it wading near all the P.M.; having to go back & forth several times to assist each other with extra cattle. Some few things in our wagons got slightly wet, & near sunset we were all safe over and camped on the N. side of the South Platte. 8 m. total 411.
23rd A train in charge of Mr. Dorothy of 6 wagons from Larimie passed—Buffalo robes was a part of the loading. We let our cattle rest & feed till 6 P.M. & then traveled all night. The mail from Kearney to Laramie by two horsemen & a pack mule accompanied us as far as Ash hollow.
24th Had a good road till near daylight & then rather dangerous going down the Bluffs. Father Cook & Banks were called on & went & assisted a lone wagon up the hill, off on another road where they had staid a whole day—were going East. Reached North Platte sun half an hour
25 To-day road bad going thro' much sand—very warm Better grass than usual at nooning place. A few antelope were seen. Camped half a mile off the river—musquetoes quite bad. 11 m 442.
26 More sand & hard hauling—good grass. River seems to widen & Bluffs to diminish in size & less rocks to be seen. Camped on the river bank & found musquetoes as bad as ever. 10. m 452.
July 27th Road some better. At 3 P.M. we met 3 wagons from Laramie. Cloudy cool & windy—Shower at noon & some rain in the night. Camp ground on an eminence near the river. 13 miles, total 465
28th A 4 mule team passed us going West. The carriage contained 4 men & one was a merchant named Kinkead. Found a clear stream at noon & filled our water kegs as we generally have to use the muddy river water. 2 o’clk. P.M we met an express of 3 horsemen from Laramie in search of deserters who had fled for Cal. or the States. Camp place was half a mile off the river, on a bench 40 to 50 ft high which gave us a fair view of surrounding scenery. Had a fine spring of water for our convenience. Cloudy A.M. fair P.M. Some good singing we had in the evening to cheer our hearts. 14 m. 479.
29th This morn we saw a pyramid rock in the distance which we passed in the P.M. scituated 2 miles off on our left. At 11 A.M. Mr. Tuttle found a horse badly injured in the shoulder. At 3 P.M. crossed Smith’s fork near its mouth—very low water. After this the face of the country seemed to change & the atmosphere too. Past 4 P.M. a cold cloud hung over us—sprinkled some followed by a gust of wind of short duration. Musquetoes as usual. 17. 496.
30th At 9 AM. we met a Government train of 3 wagons. Mr. Tuttle found another horse that was sick (with Gov. brand) 5 o’clk. P.M. camped by the river & opposite to Chimney Rock which we visited before dark & saw thousands of names engraved in the soft rock. Scarcity of wood & few musquetoes. 13 m. 509.
31st Merchant Reese & 3 other men drove up & got breakfast with us. Made a short halt at noon & then went on. Br. Banks got ready as usual to start but changed his notion & turned his cattle loose again—one was slightly lame & we went too fast for him—he must have been afraid the lame one would give out & even if it did he would still have more team than we (except Tuttles teams) Webb’s Black Cow from Boothe of Kearney was left behind this morn. & Tuttle furnished him an ox to work in her place. She was a headstrong brute & fractious in the yoke & some days ago had to give up working her & at last she got so bad off as to be unable to get her head down to eat grass, the neck was so sore & stiff. Banks was left to move as he liked. A lone wagon of 5 yoke cattle accompanied us most all day & camped with us at night half mile off the river. Bluffs on our left were somewhat broken & some high knobs of a pyramid shape 12 m. total 521.
Thursday 1st we moved on & left the river—Several dead cattle were seen. Bluffs on both sides of us. begin to resemble mountains. The range on our right put me in mind of a picture representation of a Mexican walled city, full of old castles & towers. One peak resembled a grain stack in one direction
and other unnamed peaks and bluffs]
At 2 P.M. Aug 1st we reached a pass in these mountain bluffs, & found water, but none for 13 miles back Here we found a sort of trading establishment whose things sold very high. Saw some old iron & other remains of a Blacksmith shop[,] also the first Indians since leaving Missouri river. Rested 2 hours & then resumed our journey. On descending, over the Pass we saw an Indian Camp 1 mile off the road. Camped by a spring at dusk; feed scarce & road very dry. A couple of traders from Laramie got supper with us & paid well for it. Shortly after two men from the States for Cal got a day & a half provisions from us. 18. m 539
Fri. 2nd At 10 AM. we met 12 wagons & about 300 head of loose cattle. 2 P.M. we camped by Horse Creek & let our cattle rest the ballance of the day. The lone wagon went on. One mile from our camp a dead Indian was seen & said to have died of Smallpox. Sunset Br. Banks arrived—his lame ox had got better[.] had traveled all one night & laid by as much in the day time. 8 m. total 547.
3 This morn the Mail for Laramie passed. Platte river is now bordered by a growth of small trees. Found two lame animals but were unable to drive either. Warm day & hard hauling in places of sand. One of my oxen began to grow lame & so turned him among the loose cattle. Also let Br. Webb have a cow to use & got a yoke of cows of father Cook This plan we followed only to Laramie. Camp near a good stream of water. Two Indians on horseback visited us. Some Musquetoes. 12 m. 551.
4th A company of old & young Indians visited us & we gave them some vituals. The express from Kearney to Laramie—two horsemen passed us & two other horsemen in the P.M. Some Indians sick with the small pox; it was said were left in a house at Ash point. At 1 o’clk. P.M. a wagon passed at a very rapid rate drawn by Mules. Some Indians in the P.M. & traded a few trinkets. Weather warm—Road good & romantic scenery. 14 m. 565
5th Mr. Tuttle Pd. D. Cook $15 for driving team. Came in sight of the blue hills. 2½ miles East of Larime river we passed a French trading establishment for the Sioux Indians. 7 miles bro’t us to the mouth of Laramie river 1 m. below the Ft.—the water much clearer than the Platte & caught some fish after camping there. 7 m. total 572.
6 crossed the river Laramie & journeyed ¼ mile this day. The country about Laramie seems better than usual & yet seems barren & to produce little of any kind of vegetation. Pine and Juniper in places on the hill sides & the rivers are bordered by a young growth of Cotton wood. Laramie is yet small but on the increase. Provisions very high Flour $18, pr. hund. Bacon $18, sugar & coffee 50 cts pr. lb.—other things in proportion. Iron is worth almost nothing, yet Blacksmith work is very high. Shoes for a yoke of oxen will cost $8. Nails 75 cts pr doz or over $13 a yoke besides the labor of setting them on. Wagons & Guns are of little account here. Tuttle having onloaded camped with
7th Tuttle & company started back for Kearney. His hired man John would not do as he was told & so got turned of[f] & so the poor fellow had to return with Mr. Tuttle & settle with Boothe of Kearney. Tuttle liked his two other men Williams & his son Lyman, & they coaxed & laid a plan & got away[.] Banks boy George Staples who had frequently been scolded at considerable. He slipped off so sly that Banks & his wife did not miss him till he had been gone a few hours. We found the two Ortons at Laramie & they had one yoke of cattle; they had been turned off by Carrigan who could not agree with them.
We started at 11 AM. & drove 3 miles & camped where the grass was better Found the lone wagon that kept our Company about a week ago for two days—the 5 men divided, & Simon P. Gerty & his two brothers went on 3 m total 575
8th 4 wagons passed.—shower in the P.M. We began a small coalpit.
9th father Cook caught 2 mess of fish—7 wagons camped with us
10th A.M. 24 wagons passed being a part of Capt. Snow’s Co. under Leonard and Pierson. Hooping wheels & setting tires going on. Three large catfish were caught out of the Platte. Br. Grants Com. of 20 wagons arrived & camped 1¾ m below
11th It threatened us a shower yesterday & to-day but we only got a sprinkling & gust of wind. We put 2 letters in the Laramie P.O. one going to my father in Conn. Here is the most of it.—
After leaving Mo. river we journeyed over 300 m. before we saw any Buffalo—then not less than 8000 at one view & over 20 000 during the day—vast herds of them feeding together & for several days a scarcity of grass for our cattle[.] Sometimes lame ones have to be left behind for the wolves to devour. It was over 500 m before we saw any Indians & then we saw hundreds of the Sioux, many of them on horses & mules & a strange set of beings they were. The ford in South Platte was half a mile wide very shallow & swift & not over 4 ft. deep. Larimie ford was 10 rods wide & 2½ ft deep. We have got to Laramie 575 m. & many are the long & desolate plains behind us—the Blackhills of the mountains are before us in sight & Laramie peak can be seen 60 m off. We are waiting to recruit our cattle & get the lame ones shod. The Government blacksmith only wants per yoke $8, for shoes & 75 cts per dozen nails. This will make $12, to 14, & we put them on. Laramie is quite a thriving village & is more for the benefit of a few Big Bugs. They should assist the emigrant & I suppose they do when they are well pd. Sugar & coffee sells at 50 cts pr lb. candles $1, lb. Flour $18. pr hund. or $30, pr bbl. Pork-o & other things in proportion; except wagons, guns, & a few other things left by the emigrant. Iron is very abundant & tuns[tons] of it is strewn along the road left by Californians who destroyed many of their wagons & burnt the wood & threw the iron in the river while it was high water. The river has fallen & gives us a view of the iron strewn along the bank. Was Clerk of the Company & kept a journal & have given you a few items of it. Our teams are not very strong but we are in no way disheartened. We should be glad to hear from you & the rest of our folks, & would be glad to be with you & talk over the past but the time has not yet come. Do write soon—Direct Salt Lake City Deseret. My best wishes to you all[.] May God bless you is the prayer of your Son Luke Wm. Gallup
P.S. Br. J. M. Grant has come along with a company & now we can get our blacksmithing done & dont care a fig for Uncle Sam’s Fort. The leaders of our people are doing a good work. They have instructed Br. Hunter to bring up the rear & help the needy with his loose cattle on to Deseret. Pd 10 cts postage on this letter to carry it as far as the frontier.
12th We were busy tire setting. Exchanged with Br. Grants Com. some charcoal for ox shoes. P.M. ten wagons of Wm. Snows com passed. Br. Gardiner Snows Co. camped 1 m. below us this eve.
13th We got Br. Stone a blacksmith (of Gardners Co.) to come to our company & do some work We assisted to fix his bellows & found him coal & in 6 hours he made $10, & charged one third as much as the Fort men & he staid the longer as his com. had lost an ox—& left us at noon. 33 wagons passed & 16 more among whom was J. Carter. Some are using leather shoes for their cattle. P.M. thunder shower & sharp lightning.
14th Three wagons left our camp ground two of which were Sam C. Pines also a com. of 7 others sd to be Adamson & Farleys. At 10 A.M. Wm. Snows Com of 43 wagons passed followed by Br. Grants of 20 wagons. Br. Webb of our Com. was fortunate as he expected to have to winter at Laramie He found an odd cow some days ago & we found to day another stray cow & let him have & so he was provided. We started at noon after a 9 days stay at Laramie. Overtook & followed in the rear of Grants Company some hard hauling thro’ a piece of sand. Br. Banks boy had run away & so he had to do his own driving & made awkward work for the first time & near camping time, drove against a tree which smashed his wagon bows on one side. This irritated him some & so he went on ahead of us & camped with Br. Grants Co. but joined us next day. We camped with Wm. Snows Co. 1/4 m. off the river. 9 m. total 584.
15th David Cook & I had a long walk of 3½ m. down the river for our cattle that were moving back for Laramie. Banks cattle had strayed too & he came back 2 m. to us to find them. At 8 AM. we started on in Wm. Snow com. Eight miles & we halted by a small creek. We got permission to go with Br. Snows Com. 6 m. farther in the P.M. Some light showers. Hilly road. Some pine on the bluffs & hill sides—grass scarce[.] 15 m. 598
16th Eight miles & we came to a creek with a little water, then 4 m. to nooning but no water & short stop. A mile farther we found an excellent spring & staid an hour there—Then 3 m. & camped by a Creek[.] some timber & bushes, grass good. Visited one of the red sand & clay hills in this vicinity. 12 m total 610
17 Soon after leaving our encampment while journeying along a large body of Indians visited us & kept our company for a few miles. They seemed friendly, traded a little & begged much. 8 miles to the river where we had a noon-spell. A Thunder shower in the P.M. detained us half an hour. The rain laid the dust which was bad & the wind blew very hard so we made 5 m farther & got to the river & camped just before dark—saw some Buffalo on the opposite bank. Most of the Company met in Council in the eve., about the best course to pursue &c. agreed to spend Sunday here. Br. Banks sung the hymn “Hail to the Prophet” 13 m. to day total 623.
Sun. 18th Aug. Cloudy morn & Easterly wind. Rained nearly all day & night.
19th A drizzling rain cold & wind East all day & night—hauled up old dry cottonwood logs & made good fires—grass good here. A few went out Buffalo hunting & got in late, with a small quantity of meat on horseback. Our little company belongs in Br. Nobles Ten We have in the company Three organized Tens with 48 wagons. The other half of the com. are ahead. It fell to my lot to be on a watch tour last Saturday night. Br. A. Stodard gave me a list of guardsmen in his ten, as follows—Sam’l McClelan, Amos Stodard, W.C. McClelan, Hugh Day, G. W. Cliff [Clift], Cyrus Sanford, Wm. Parker, Nathan Cheney, John Fassett, Warren Burgess, Charles Brown, Wm. Walker, Charles Barnum, & Ja[mes] McClel[l]an. 14 in all.
Guardsmen in [Lucian] Nobles Ten—Wm. Snow, Lucian Noble, H. H. Cole, Ja. A. Cole, A. I. Cole, Leonard Wines, John Levrett [Leavitt], Henry Woodard, Mr. Winfield, David Webb, Geo. Catlin, John Simmons, J. Simmons Jr, Wm. Stephens[,] Wm. Stephens Jr., Walter Stephens, Albert Stephens, David Cook, Daniel Cook & Luke W. Gallup. I have also obtained a List of names &c. in Capt. Wm. Snow’s Hundred which I copied from his papers.
Names of those at the head of families [and] No[.] Persons in each
Wm. Snow, 10 People, 3 Wagons, 12 Cattle, 2 Horses
Lucian Noble, 7 People, 2 Wagons, 12 Cattle, 3 Horses & one colt
H. H. Cole, 11 People, 2 Wagons, 12 Cattle
Henry Woodard, 2 People, 1 Wagon, 8 Cattle, 2 Horses
Chas P. Cuningham, 5 People, 1 Wagon, 10 Cattle
Wm. Stephens, 9 People, 3 Wagons, 18 Cattle
Geo. Catlin, 6 People, 1 Wagon, 10 Cattle
Total, 7 [Families], 50 People, 13 Wagons, 82 Cattle, 8 Horses
Tory [Thore] Thirston [Thurston], 5 People, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
Levi Roberts, 7 People, 1 Wagon, 8 Cattle
Ja. Rabins, 5 People, 1 Wagon, 8 Cattle
John Smith, 8 People, 2 Wagons, 8 Cattle, 2 Horses, 25 Sheep
Larae Larson, 7 People, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
John Fox, 3 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
Jesse C. Braley, 6 People, 1 Wagon, 5 Cattle, 1 Horse
David Day, 3 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
Ja. Bosnal, 5 People, 2 Wagons, 12 Cattle, 1 Horse & one colt
Joseph King, 4 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle.
Total, 17 Families, 103 People, 25 Wagons, 149 Cattle, 13 Horses, 25 Sheep
Alfred Bibee [Bybee], 3 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
Joseph Hardy, 8 People, 2 Wagons, 10 Cattle
Daniel Smith, 12 People, 3 Wagons, 14 Cattle, 2 Horses
Lee Bibee [Bybee], 3 People, 1 Wagon, 8 Cattle
Lee Bibee, Jr., 4 People, 1 Wagon, 7 Cattle
David Crock, 8 People, 1 Wagon, 7 Cattle
Job Hall, 4 People, 1 Wagon, 8 Cattle
Total, 24 Families, 145 People, 35 Wagons, 209 Cattle, 15 Horses, 25 Sheep
Ja[mes] McClelan, 11 People, 3 Wagons, 18 Cattle
Amos Stod[d]ard, 8 People, 1 Wagon, 7 Cattle
Hugh Day, 6 People, 1 Wagon, 14 Cattle
Alfred Walton, 7 People, 1 Wagon, 8 Cattle
Thomas Bird, 3 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
Charles Barnum, 3 People 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
Nathan Cheney, 6 People, 1 Wagon, 8 Cattle
Wm. Parker, 4 People 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
Cyrus Sanford, 10 People 2 Wagons, 8 Cattle, 2 Horses
Total, 33 Families, 203 People, 47 Wagons, 288 Cattle, 17 Horses, 25 Sheep
John Fosset, 6 People, 1 Wagon, 7 Cattle
Edward Farley, 8 People, 4 Wagons, 25 Cattle, 2 Horses, 2 Mules
Jacob Adamson, 9 People, 3 Wagons, 15 Cattle, 2 Horses
Sam’l C. Pine, 5 People, 2 Wagons, 10 Cattle
Total, 37 Families, 231 People, 57 Wagons, 345 Cattle, 21 Horses, 2 Mules, 25 Sheep
Gardner Snow, 10 People, 2 Wagons, 11 Cattle
Aaron York, 11 People, 2 Wagons, 6 Cattle, 3 Horses
Joseph Young, 11 People, 3 Wagons, 17 Cattle, 1 Horse
Lemuel Lewis, 6 People 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
John Sweat, 5 People, 2 Wagons, 12 Cattle, 1 Horse, 6 Sheep
John Carter, 8 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
Hyrum Sweat, 2 People, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
Ezra Bigford, 3 People, 1 Wagon, 9 Cattle, 7 Sheep
David Sabin, 9 People, 2 Wagons, 12 Cattle
Elijah Bilingsly, 9 People, 2 Wagons, 9 Cattle
Sam’l Pollock, 4 People, 1 Wagon, 5 Cattle
David Somaraus, 6 People 2 Wagons, 9 Cattle
Total, 49 Families, 315 People, 77 Wagons, 451 Cattle, 26 Horses, 2 Mules, 38 Sheep
Warren Smith, 13 People, 2 Wagons, 13 Cattle
Hyrum Mott, 14 People, 5 Wagons, 50 Cattle, 9 Horses
Clark S. Fabun, 2 People, 1 Wagon, 5 Cattle
Richard Griffith, 5 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
Wm. Rust, 5 People 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
Charles A. Davis, 5 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
David Harris, 7 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
David Lamaraux [Lamoreaux], 2 Wagons
Total, 57 Families, 366 People, 91 Wagons, 543 Cattle, 35 Horses, 2 Mules, 38 Sheep
Truman Leonard, 3 People, 2 Wagons, 14 Cattle
Charles M. Johnson, 5 People, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
James Fife, 8 People, 2 Wagons, 12 Cattle, 1 Horse
Asa Calkin, 5 People, 3 Wagons, 11 Cattle, 3 Horses
Alma Harris, 2 People, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
Martin Harris, 1 Wagon, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
Total, 63 Families, 390 People, 101 Wagons, 592 Cattle, 39 Horses, 2 Mules, 38 Sheep
Harmon D. Persons [Pierson], 3 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle, 4 Sheep
Ja. Whitaker, 12 People, 2 Wagons, 16 Cattle, 16 Sheep
John Woodland, 9 People, 2 Wagons, 8 Cattle
Thomas Woodland, 3 People 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
John Simmons , 8 People, 2 Wagons, 12 Cattle, 1 Horse
[John] Welch, 4 People, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
[David] Jenkins, 5 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
John Moore [Moon], 5 People 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
Henry Moore [Moon], 4 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
Thomas Ralph, 3 People, 1 Wagon, 5 Cattle
73 Families, 446 People, 114 Wagons, 667 Cattle, 40 Horses, 2 Mules, 58 Sheep
Thomas Rich, 5 People, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
Ezra Parrish, 7 People, 2 Wagons, 11 Cattle, 2 Horses
Geo. Parrish, 5 People, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
Andrew Colton, 5 People, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
John, 4 People, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
Amos Stone, 8 People, 2 Wagons, 10 Cattle
Winslow Fau [Farr], 9 People, 3 Wagons 10 Cattle, 2 Mules
John Witt, 4 People, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
Harrison Severe, 5 People, 1 Wagon, 12 Cattle
Ja. McBride, 1 Wagon, 4 Cattle
[Thomas Burke] Foy, 8 People, 1 Wagon, 8 Cattle
Thomas Moss, 3 People, 2 Wagons
Wm Blasdell, 1 Wagon, 6 Cattle
John Pool, 1 Wagon, 8 Cattle
87 Families, 509 People, 133 Wagons, 758 Cattle, 42 Horses, 4 Mules, 58 Sheep
Aug 20 After some consultation the com. agreed to stop to-day & wash & dry their things. In our council here Saturday we among other things some few men were to go out & hunt Buffalo (but not on Sunday)[.] Too many men would scare away the Buffalo & it was not safe for the majority to leave camp. So when the hunters returned Monday eve they claimed the meat they got & gave to a few of their particular friends which caused some dissafaction The hunters grumbled because some horse owners were unwilling their horses should go to ride on, & pack meat. Some meat drying by fires today & more was bro’t in at dusk when a consultation was held about it. Brs. Snow & McClelan talked plain to those out of the way & settled the matter about right. A few men hunting on this side of the river shot a Buffalo, they returned to Camp & got a team & went to haul it in, but just before reaching it, it rose & ran off, cheating them badly. Some pies were made of choke cherry & a small sour berry growing here. AM. showery – sun shone at intervals.
21st A dense fog early. At 10 AM. resumed our journey. The river is on the rise & gained 2 ft. since the storm. Our course was away from the river towards Laramie Peak, over a broken & hilly country. Scattering groves of timber down the ravines. Made a short halt at 2 P.M making 7 m. One of Br. McClellans work oxen died & detained us 2 hours.
Just as we started on Br. Markhams com. of over 30 wagons overtook us. Late in the P.M. it was a beautiful sight to see the wagons rolling up the long gradual hill slope, Markhams train following ours. On the top of the highest hill we could see before us, the bold & rugged mountains, steep hills & deep valleys before descending the road forked one being used about as much as the other We followed the right hand one & descended into the valley & camped by the site of the “La Bonte” a large stream. One of Markhams wagons broke an axle tree. Scarcity of grass 15 m. 638
22 The cattle rambled off & so all that could turned out to hunt them & it got late before they were found, except 3 of Br. Stodards. So we left all the spare men we could to hunt with him & then rolled on being noon before we started. Drove 5 m. & camped by a small Cr. Some choke cherrys but little grass short of a mile down the creek. Much red sand & clay soil especially on the hill side & some chalk. The two head wagons belonging to Mr. Bigelow had got some distance ahead of us & so kept on & went 2 miles supposing we were coming after them. They turned about & drove back just at dark & while away an accident happened to one of these two wagons taking fire from some cause & getting to some powder an explosion took place & burned two persons badly—they were administered to by Br. Snow & others. Some wild hops about here 5 m. 643.
23rd Got ready to move on, when the 5 men came to us who had staid behind to hunt cattle, reported all right. We then rolled on to find a better place for our cattle. Met 13 men with 25 mules, supposed to be Californians returning. Rough country & road too. Slowly Laramie Peak is receding from view Just at dark we camped by A La Prele Cr[eek]. Gardner with the second 50 was here. Some had been out Buffalo hunting. Cattle feed rather scarce 14 m. 657m.
Aug. 24 Gardners Co. started early & we got off late. Warm day & rough road. Some teams hung behind considerable. Camped by the Fourche Boise, and grass scarce. In many places where Claytons guide book from Laramie to the Valley states good grass there is scarcely any—The cattle of the early companies having eaten it up. Herded our cattle over 2 m. up the creek. Choke cherries in abundance—also the sour “woolberry” Large quantities of Pine on the high & distant hills 9 m. 666.
Sun 25th A small co. going West passed with two wagons & some pack mules, s[ai]d. to be Indian traders Told us they had shot a couple of Buffalo 2 m back on the road. A few of our men went back & got some of the meat which was divided all round. At noon Markhams Co. overtook us. Eve. meeting to worship God Bro. Snow, Markham, & Banks addressed us
26th Found an excellent spring of water under the bank of the creek It was difficult to find our cattle so got a late start—rolled 6 m. & camped on the bank of the river at 1 P.M. & joined Stoddards ten that was sent forward yesterday. Markham camped half mile above on the river & the cattle were all drove over to get good feed. Abundance of prickly pear nearly covering the ground in places. A dance late in the eve. but did not see it, going to bed early. 6 m. 672.
27th Rolled on three miles up the river bottom & crossed Deer Creek where a part of Gardner’s Snow s Com. were shoeing their cattle. 3½ miles farther on & we halted & had our nooning on the Platte banks. P.M. 5 1/2 miles & camped half mile off the river[.] Light thunder shower—Plenty of dry wood & woolberrys in abundance[.] 12m. 684.
28th cloudy morn. 1½ m. & we came to a creek—very muddy & bad crossing. Nooning place not far from the river. Thunder shower at half past 3 P.M. Much old iron to-day. At 5 o’clk a Stampede occurred which resulted rather bad to some & detained us an hour on the spot & also next day. As we were rolling along with a feeling of security, Br. Nobles colt suddenly started up with fright & ran up to one of the ox teams which also took fright followed by several others rushing ahead at full speed; & a short distance ahead was a deep ditch or runway for water in the wet season of the year from 12 to 15 feet wide & 5 to 8 deep, which received them. They had only about 25 rods to run & went at full jump. To start on some oxen & wagon ran over Br. Nobles & a girl was taken from under a wagon down in the ditch – some were badly frightened & to complete the scene of confusion some of the dogs went to fighting
The oxen in the ditch were soon extricated by cutting bow keys. The colt that caused the fright was killed on the spot, also a cow, & one ox had his hip put out of joint, & the Dutchman who owned it killed it next day to put it out of its misery. Five wagons were more or less injured. No. 1 in 8 ft. deep ditch bottom upwards – bows & projections smashed. No. 2 in ditch 7 ft deep side down & slightly damaged. No. 3 in 6 ft ditch went square down with the fore wheels, injured some No. 4 in 5½ ft deep ditch, wagon tongue was shoved in opposite bank & broken except the iron bar on it the whole length; was easily rolled out. No. 5 landed fairly in the ditch at the crossing place 5 ft. deep & got a broken axletree. The wagon No. 1 belonged to Noble No. 2 Wm. Snows. No. 3 the Dutchman who joined the Com. at Laramie & lost the ox above named. No. 4 John Banks No. 5 Sister Wines in Wm. Snow charge. The girl in the wagon upset had a narrow escape. It was fortunate that all were stopped but the five runaways & were thankful it was no worse & felt that we had got off better than we expected. Rolled 1 m. farther & camped by the river for the night[.] 14 m. 698.
29th spent the day repairing wagons, washing, picking woolberrys etc. Turned our cattle over the river. P.M. Carters ten seen on Deer Cr. passed by us.
Aug 30th At 11 o’clk AM. passed by a ten of G. Snow’s at their Camp place It was 7 to 8 m. to the Platte ford which we soon crossed but just before we got there we met a man from the Valley Salt Lake with a span of horses & wagon Rough & hilly road this P.M. At eve. we were divided in 3 companies. The head wagons ascended some steep pitches & drove on to find a better C[amping]. P[lace]. We were in the 2d Com. or division & camped on the ground above the pitches so the hindmost Com. was not far back. Scarcity of grass & wood. A lofty range of mountains S.E. of us, high hills around us & deep below us was the Platte winding its way among them, apparantly sneaking & crawling along as if to hide itself from our view. 14 m. 712.
31st We rolled on & went by the 1st Division who had a good place but had not yet found their cattle. Soon after we left the Platte for the last time & passed over a common sized creek, & found a tolerable
Sun. 1st Br. Banks preached us a sermon & Brs. Snow & McClelan followed with some good remarks. In the P.M. a squall cloud passed over & gave us a sprinkling followed by a cooler atmosphere. Two of the men went hunting. Cold night.
2nd Rolled on 7 m. & took our nooning at Willow Spring. Plenty of old iron. Road good yet very dusty. P.M a few long hill side slopes & very gradual in ascent. Woodwards lame cow was left behind. Several ranges of distant hills in sight yet much obscured by smoky air. At 4 P.M. we passed G. Snow s company & camped by a creek 2 m beyond them. 14 m. 740.
3rd More old iron here. Here is the outline of a distant range of mountains seen thro’ the smoky air this morning. [drawing of mountain outline] 7 m. of hard pulling thro sand this AM. P.M. went 2 m. & halted at the Salaratus Lake or pond which had 3 to 4 acres surface & was like ice when rotten & broken up. We took in a sack of the article. Rolled 3½ m. farther & camped near by Independance Rock & observed many names on it. Gardners Fifty traveled with us to-day. We crossed Sweet Water & camped. Sage brush for fuel 12½ m. 752½.
4th some sandy road. Noon place 1 m. above Devils Gate & found abundance old iron. At 2 P.M met 8 men with 20 mules & at 4 P.M. met an ox team with a horseman driving 10 loose oxen going to meet Reese’ comp. Good grass at the camp place. Some huge piles of Rock in view—young Rocky mountains & at the foot of one (1 1/12m.) distant we found & hauled away some dry pine—10 m[.] 762½
5th Loose sandy road & hard pulling. Forded Sweet Water twice in the P.M. & camped at 4 o’clk. No wood, grass average. Three footmen from Markham’s Co. overtook & staid all night with us. 8 m. 770½
and Range of Mountains]
6th More bad going thro’ the sand[.] C.P. at Cottonwood spring[.] 7½ m[.] 778
7th Rolled 9 m before nooning after which forded Sweet Water two or three times. We now daily see the bones of cattle that died early in the season[.] also old iron still abundant. Eleven wagons in Nobles ten (ours included) got this eve. 2 m. ahead of the main com. 13 m. 791.
Sun. 8 We rested as usual. Camp ½ m. off the road Three horsemen from Salt Lake Valley visited us on their way back East & wanted to know our condition & how many were bound for the Valley. Shortly after Noble received a letter by Br. Banks (who came on horseback)[.] Br. Snow’s letter gave us to understand that he did not have the best of feelings towards Noble or it was thus construed. He wanted 3 yoke of cattle out of our ten for the use of the other tens to help the weaker teams to the Valley & then return them providential accidents excepted. Nobles & Stephens were the men to furnish them but they thought it would be sufficient if they provided for their own ten. It was said that a call had been previously made indirectly & those who could spare the cattle did not feel like volunteering after some persons had circulated an evil report. We had traveled slow lately because some people had neglected doing up their morning duties in season & kept others waiting when all ready to move
Nobles Com. held a council in the P.M. & concluded to leave the other two tens as the best course to pursue. The men called on had strong teams & other folks were too slow for them & they seemed afraid of having to help others. I was sorry afterwards that I had not joined Wm. Snows & left them.
Fire wood 1½ m. distant. Two wind squalls in the P.M & sprinkling
9th At 9 AM. we crossed Sweet Water ford No. 7. Drove 10 m before nooning by some alkali ponds. Rolled on & reached Sweet W. again as the sun was setting. Carters Co. camped ¼ m ahead of us. Grass scarce & some old iron here. Cold & uncomfortable night. 19 m. 810
10th The horses strayed of[f] & were not found till 10 AM. Some thought men had come on from Snows Co. & stole them because we had left them behind. Cloudy morn[.] ½ m. & forded S.W. No. 8[.] Then ascended a long high hill & down again—took 2 hours nooning. At 4 P.M. crossed S.W. No. 9 & 10. Camped at 5 P.M. Grass some better. 8 m. 818.
11th Rolled on 2½ m. & found a guide board,—so we took “Andres” new route leading up some long hills. At 3 P.M. the snowy peaks of the distant Rocky Mountain Chain were in full view[.] Yon lofty peaks emersed in the clear light blue of heaven—the monuments of time long ago present to us their rocky sides & declare an existence for thousands of ages yet to come.—After which a strong head wind & dusty road. The sun shone dimly thro’ clouds at times—Passed over some flint & gravel ridges, with rocky hills around us—some dry pines on them. At 5 P.M. we passed Carters Company on their Camp ground, a place destitute of wood.—Camped ¾ m. beyond & had plenty of popple[poplar] & willow fuel in groves nearby.—13 ½ m. 831½
Sept. 12th Ice ¼ inch thick in our pails. A down hill road 2¼ m. Got on the old road again. ¾ of a mile farther on we crossed a branch of Sweet Water. After this rather more dry bones than usual—most of which were remains of cattle that had died in the early part of the season. Nooning by Willow Creek. Grasshoppers very thick. P.M. Rolled 4½ m.—crossed Sweet Water No.11 & found a C.P. Reese’ Com. camped near us, but Carters went on beyond. 9½ m. of good road[.] Total 841.
13th To-day—rolled over the South Pass or Divide in the Rocky Mountains. Cloudy till 2 P.M. threat’ning a snow storm—then clear & warm. Reese’s Com. passed by us at the Twin Mounds—At noon met a team with 13 yoke cattle going to meet Wooleys train—saw more dry bones than any day yet. Camped at half past 4 P.M. Our cattle had a wet miry piece of bottom land to graze on. Drove rather too fast for our weaker teams this day. 15. m. total 856
14th Simmons’ two wagons with Br. Webb & myself, got some behind to-day—Our teams rather lagged behind & are getting dull, & it seems that some of the company care very little about us. Camped by a muddy creek—fine weather yet hard hauling 12 m. total 868.
Sun. 15th Early fog & difficult finding cattle—climate more mild & fair prospect of a delightful Autumn.
looking East & South of the Pass, High Peak on Chain N. of the Pass,
East view, South Pass, North end of the Chain in the distance,
a continuation of the Chain N. of the Pass]
We met 3 Indians going East. Crossed Little Sandy at noon. At 1 P.M. met an ox team, sent to assist Hunters company. Level road & quite Sandy. 13 m. total 881.—
Sept. 16th A strong West wind & very dusty—hard road on teams. Noon place by the Big Sandy & journeyed along side of it in the P.M. & camped ¼ m. away from it. 13½ m. 894½
17th It seemed like one vast plain around us—a very extensive view & has been about the same every day since we came over the Pass. Mountains can be seen over a hundred miles distant. The first 3 m. to-day we kept not far off the Sandy—& after 3 m. farther going we turned off the road at an old Camp place & took a wrong road & lost ¾ mile by it.
Four men from Br. Snows Company overtook us, on foot for the Valley.—Road good yet windy & very dusty. Camped by Big Sandy with Father Cook & Webb. Our other 8 wagons staid 1¼ m. ahead of us. 11 m. total 905½. miles
18th It was 7½ m. to Green river—had a noon spell after crossing[.] Overtook Carters Company. Met the Valley Mail at 2 P.M.—dusty & windy—many cattle bones as usual. Br. Webb unfortunately broke his ox yoke. Timber along the river, but scarcity of grass. Our old cow named Pink suddenly died at the C.P. 11½ m. total 917.
19th Br. Stevens let me have a cow to fill the place of our lost one. At 9 A.M. we started on. At noon Br. Webbs’ old cow gave out & was left in a dying state—no water for 13 miles, but plenty of cattle bones.—windy & dusty. C.P. on Black’s Fork 13 m. total 930.
20th Br. Webb & I was of the opinion that Brs. Noble & Stevens ought to help us in the team line for taking our turns in guarding their horses in the night time, to prevent their being stolen. Our cattle are not guarded & we would not give a fig to have our wagons watched. Windy—5½ m. to our Nooning on Ham’s Fork. P.M. heavy wind & very dusty. Crossed Black’s Fork & camped among some sand hills—We named the place Wind Break[.] We have not yet lost sight of the Rocky Mountain Peaks. 10½ m total 940½. m.
21st A warm day, yet windy & dusty P.M. We saw some curious Bluffs to-day resembling ancient Castles & fortifications. Crossed Blacks Fork twice & at evening camped within 8 feet of it. Plenty of small Black thorn apples along its banks[.] 13½ total 954.
22nd We let out teams rest till 4 P.M. Journeyed ¾ mile & crossed a large creek emptying into Blacks Fork—met a team of 7 yoke going to meet Haywood & Wooley.—Comfortable C.P. on a clear spot nearly surrounded by willows.—A cloudy morn & light rain in the P.M.—4 m. total 958.
23rd Good road to Ft. Bridger yet some stony places[.] crossed 2 streams—one before we got there & the other soon after passing the F[or]t. The first one had a very swift current. Simmons sold an ox that had near given out for little or nothing. Plenty of willows about the Ft. & lots of scrub cedars on the Bluff sides. Met 3 horsemen from the Valley on business relating to the Indians—also a horse team going back. 1½ m. past the Ft., we commenced the ascent of a long hill, & from the top of the ridge at 5 P.M. we saw the Rocky mountain ridge or range once more. A squall cloud passed over leaving a beautiful rainbow. Pleasant C.P. by a small creek—sage brush fuel. 15½. 973½.
24th There was a terrible howling among the wolves last night.—Plenty of bones about, where they have probably feasted. A fine morn but the wind soon rose followed by dust. 1½ m. & then descended a very long hill—stoney & bad going,—crossed a Creek in the valley below—then went over a high ridge, into another Valley where we had our nooning. P.M. saw a steer that Carter’s Co. had left behind.
Sept. 24th We next had a hill 2 m. long of gradual ascent to go up—then a ridge road—deep ravines on both sides. Had a light shower of rain & hail. Camped on the ridge, & found the nearest water half a mile N. of the road in a deep ravine. It was a Sulphur Spring. Carter’s Camp was ¾ mile ahead. 13¼ m. total 986¾
25th ¾ of a mile bro’t us to Quakenasp Mountain, & soon after we descended a steep slope ¾ m. long. Passed by Carter’s Com. Saw some of them making beef of a cow that the wolves had bitten badly last night. Here was a beautiful valley one mile long surrounded by high hills—above and beyond which were the tops of mountains which seemed as if peeping over these hills to look down upon us in this warm Valley. We passed thro’ two more such openings or valleys by a short turn or sort of narrows connecting them with each other, with not quite as pleasant an appearance. After which, over a hill into another valley. Noon place by a creek & Spring. Some good land by us. Next 2 m. was rough road—Crossed Bear river, & then ascended a hill,—thence part way down a valley leading into Yellow Creek. Pleasant C.P. to look upon, yet the wolves howled much in the night, making, a not very agreeable sound. 12¼ miles.—Total 999. miles.
26th Heavy frost.—Drove 5 m. & passed Rough Rock Point. We then crossed Yellow Creek,—thence over a long hill to Noon Place—thence down a ravine & passed Catche or Cache Cave & camped a little way beyond it. Found plenty of dry cedar by ascending the Bluff. 14 m. total 1013 miles.
27th Our road was down Echo Canyon—high bluffs on both sides. Some good springs along this valley or kanyon, & some very fine & beautiful specimens of natural architecture on the N. side. Crossed Echo Creek many times, & were often detained at the steep fording places. Carters’ Com. camped near us. Three horsemen from the Valley slept in Simmons’ tent. Dry Quakenasp firewood off the S. Bluff side. 14 m. 1027
28th Carters Co. was left behind as their cattle strayed off. A cold frosty morning, yet a fine day.—About 5 m. & we came into Weber Valley,—then down it, some 4 m. & crossed over, & then about 3 m. up a small Kanyon having some willows & brush by a small Creek Camp Place surrounded by high mountain scenery. Here we found a Notice left by G. Snows train or Co. It stated they had left here to-day noon & also it read—“We had a sort of stampede & our cattle driven 8 m. by the wolves.—One ox & one cow were killed.” 11½ m 1038½ m.
Sun—Sept. 29th We ascended up the Kanyon to the top of a ridge & then down a bad road into Kanyon Creek & 3 m. up stream we found a C.P. Noble & Catlin got over a mile ahead of the others in our Company. Carters Com. were also separated—some both sides of us. Wood & water plentiful. Grass everage[average] & mostly on the mountain side. 10 m. total 1048½
30th Our company got together again about noon. It was tough hauling for the cattle up the Kanyon & still worse up the Mountain thro’ a little side kanyon. Saw much Balsam or Fir as we ascended.—Had to double teams near the top & on which we had our first view of Salt Lake Valley[.] It waked up our feelings of the promised land. On descending the dust was very bad, so we could scarcely see only as it cleared one side or the other by spells. Plenty of wood & water but a scarcity of grass at our C.P. Mr. Rogers & Br. from the City of Salt Lake was out here for logs & camped with us, & kept our company next day. 10½ miles total 1059 miles.
Tues. 1st We had to double teams up the mountain, called the Last Mountain, where we met Br. Hyde & comp. going East. Here was our first view of Salt Lake. On entering the Kanyon below we passed some wagons. One was upset, another had a broken axletree & others broken more or less. it was said their destination was Ft. Bridger. Our road was rough & dusty. 10 m. to C.P. Total 1069.
2nd one mile bro’t us to the mouth of the Kanyon & 5 more into the City G.S. Lake, where we arrived at noon. 6 m. total 1075 m[.] We were 107½ days on the journey. We laid by near 26 days of the time leaving 81½ days traveling time. Were very near out of provisions, when we got in the City; & some got entirely out, before they arrived, & purchased of others. I paid Mr. Noble some store pay for the use of his cow, which was worked from Green river to this City, He ought not to have charged me a cent. On Green river Sept. 18th we commenced on a bread & water diet; yet made coffee of bread crusts, morning & evening with only milk enough to color it. Some days after, had a few messes of rice & sugar, with a change of corn mush & sugar for dinner.—The last week of our journey we had nothing but corn bread; except a little flour on the last days journey, we borrowed of Mr. Stevens.
One thing more I do not wish to forget—a favorite hymn of mine commencing with the words—“Praise to the man who commun’d with Jehovah”. It was often sung on the road to this Valley by Brs. Banks & Webb