Transcript for Mary H. Snow journal, 1851 March-June, 18-79

[May] 15 About 9 oclock all things were in readiness for crossing the river and bidding adieu to cheerful firesides for a long time to come[.] we soon found ourselves on Indian ground. Two Indians and a Squaw were the first to meet us on the territory. We landed on a sand bar and for five miles I think—we rode over one of the worst roads I ever saw[.] In a short time we came to Winter Quarters[.] near it was a small knoll studded with graves. Going two miles beyond we camped for the night on a knoll where we had a good view of the country for miles.

16 The sun came out quite warm this morning and we promised ourselves a fair day. Before taking the main road we drove across the prairie for ¾ of a mile to obtain water for our horses. then going back to our track we proceeded at a rapid rate to the Pappea [Papillion] a creek 9 feet wide and 3 deep with steep banks[.] Over this a rude bridge had been constructed which although frail bore us safely up[.] We here came up with Mr[.] Young who had preceeded us and was here waiting. From this point we proceeded rapidly to the Elk Horn where we encamped for the night. We found many companies here waiting to cross the river which is very high & rising.

17 When I woke this morning it was raining so hard that with some difficulty we made a fire[.] The rain did not continue long and we were Soon able to dry all our wet garments[.] about noon some Indians of the Pawnee’s crossed over and came begging around us for food and clothing. They were nearly naked having only a robe of buffalo or deer skin to cover them[.] Some of them had their head shaved excepting only a top knot which was carefully braided[.] We gave them only such scraps as we did not need ourselves and they carefully returned such dishes as they had to eat on[.] Probably they would have turned round the next moment and stolen them if they had had a chance. One of them said he was “brave Indian—steal many horses, that the Omaha’s were bad Indians but the Pawnees were “very good”— “mormons good[.]” They respect very much any military equipments and have a profound respect for the American flag. We here repacked our goods and filled two trunks intending to leave them to be freighted over.

18 As we have a prospect of remaining here for several days it has been decided to Send on express to Kanesville for more provision horse feed &c. It is raining hard and the prospect is that it will continue to rain for several days. So our only course is to be as contented as possible. 5’’clock The storm seems to increase instead of to abate and the water pours through our tent in one continued stream[.] It is however being trenched and we intend to send for some dried grass to cover the mud and thus keep off Some of the wet.— one of our men— poor soul lies in his waggon carefully wrapped in blankets while the rest of them are unsparing in their effort to make our situation as comfortable as possible.

19 Thanks to the sun another pleasant day

20 One messenger from Kanesville returned this evening and reports that our provision is close at hand and also that two men have already arrived from Salt Lake. The day has been pleasant and we have improved it in drying our beds and airing our waggons. The wind has risen very high and the air is very cold— the Indians are creeping into hollows and other sheltered places where they can screen themselves from the piercing cold[.] The fe[r]ry man [illegible] Fontenelle has had a lodge erected near us. It was made by a Squaw who taking an axe on her shoulders cut several long poles, sharpened the points, placed them in a circle, brought the tops of all together, and then skillfully covered the whole with a large buffalo robe. She as well as the Indians were excluded from it[.] at this our womanly feelings rebelled and pointing our fingers at them we called them “no [illegible] lazy be.”— A loud laugh was our reward while they seemed to look rather astonished to think we dared be so bold[.] It is very evident that they are quite behind the times in the great question of Womans Rights[.] A fine looking Indian one of the Omahas came up to the camp to day and attracted the attention of all of us by his majestic appearance.—

21 Rain again this morning[.] At an early hour I retired to the waggon to finish some letters I wished to send back by the man who was bringing our provisions. He arrived about 10 oclock and soon after a very hard rain came on which almost threatened a deluge[.] The water poured in torrents under our tent and very much retarded the preparations we were making to cross the creek. Muddy as it was afterwards we at las[t] all got across and landed on a small island the only spot of visible land the rest being submerged. About 20 waggons and some cattle for Oregon were also there which made it very close quarters[.] with some difficulty we found wood and made a fire. Just as we commenced getting supper a terrible storm of hail and rain came on and strong to say[.] the pancakes went flying into the river taken probably with a sudden panic for nautical life[.] tin pans and cups chased one another thro[ugh] the air and the horses under the inspiriting influence of the pelting they received from the hail danced polkas and cotill[i]ons . Poor creatures[.] they suffered even more than we who wet and muddy as we were, were glad to get into our waggons to vacate our falling tent and wet and muddy as we were got into our waggons where [we] huddled together[.] we were soon in a sound sleep.

22 An effort was made this morning to get two of our lightest wagons across the water for about 2½ miles where we could have a large camping ground. It succeeded very well and then followed the heavy ones[.] Several of these got into the quicksands so badly that from 6 to 9 yoke of cattled [cattle] besides the united strength of all the men who with advantage could assist at the wheels was required to get them through[.] By dint of perseverance and hard labor all except two were safely landed on the new camping ground where we found plenty of good wood[.] The place was called the “old Mormon Camping Ground.” We were more fortunate this evening in cooking our supper which we spared no pains in making as good as possible for the benefit of our men who had been standing in water all day.

23 We are all rejoicing to day in a glorious sunshine inward as well as outward I trust for all seem happy—particularly the children[.] after being confined in the waggons so long they have been very industriously picking the feathers from Some birds which some one strange to say has taken a cruel pleasure in shooting and are now pla[y]ing keep house and are cooking their “chicken” while at the same time they are blacking in the fire and smoke one of my new tin basin[s]. “When the chicken ceases to interest them they can have a new employment that of scouring it. Augusta[,] more fastidious than the rest[,] prefers to have her portion “baked” and the tiny pieces allotted to her are slowly A suspend[ed] on the grate in the stove and slowly drying up. Close at hand is the village[.] they have building[s] of sticks and flowers interwoven[.] Crayton has made what he calls the “fort[,]” Mary Carter the “governers house[,]” Julia Snider one of the out houses belonging to it[,] Georgy a little cottage, and Susan a tenement as yet not Apropriated to any particular use while augusta dances around the whole and makes herself as generally useful as <is> possibly consistent with her state of merriment. I can see[,] I think[,] in their little work the future character of all these children. Clayton like all boys has a fondness for military display and fortifications.— Mary high minded and aspiring as I before judged her to be is satisfied with nothing but a mansion[.] Julia, gentle and good[,] will do any thing that Suits the rest[,] well pleased to have contributed to the happiness of others. In Georgy I see— her mother— while Susan wise and deliberative does not has not quite decided in her own mind what hers is most Suitable for[.] Mrs[.] Babbitts two little boys Ally and Don are making saws of all the hatchets in the company under pretense of cutting wood and their little sister who has nearly recovered from the whooping cough is like the rest of the children[,] as busy as possible. And Sally Sarah [Harris] and Mrs[.] Babbitts girl have been doing a little washing by the side of a resoivois [reservoir] of rain water not far away[.] Neither have I been idle as the boiling and bubbling of the beans I have been watching for the last two hours <will> testify while at the same time Mrs H has been assidously stiring her boiling rice[.] At intervals we have been discussing together the possibility of making a custard pie for supper[.] I have the rolling pin[,] our stores afford the eggs[,] and a <while> a large drove of cows belonging to Oregon emigrants and whose delicious milk[,] redolent of the odours of fresh grass[,] is freely offered to us if we will but milk them[,] furnishes the <only> remaining requisite. All that is wanting now is a place to roll the crust but by placing two boards on as many trunks used as seats in some of our baggage wagon, on as many trunks we have a fine table which is the envy of all our neighbors. It would almost seem as if this was a land flowing with milk when I state that without any cows of our own[,] we have had since we started plenty of good milk and cream. We have not yet been out of sight of emigrants who have generously shared with us these borowies. Last night I with the rest took my pail and tried to turn milk maid but after getting an angry kick from two cows I tried to milk[,] I resigned it in despair to Mr Snow[.] No wonder they were frightened at our appearance for we have any thing but a civilized aspect. Calico, delaine &c are not such clothing as should be prepared for this journey and we have already torn and soiled our dresses in a manner that would be very much to our discredit were we to be judged by appearances[.] It is to be hoped that no clairvoyant will peek in upon us and report the state of affairs.

Mrs Snider is quite sick and has been made as comfortable as possible—her canarys [canaries,] the only ones with us are gaily singing quite unconscious that the hand which has tended them so faithfully thus far is able to do it no longer.

24 To day we send another messenger to Kanesville[.] Emigrants are pouring onto our island and several hundred head of cattle are fast eating down the grass

25 Sunday[.] again Some of Mr B’s ox teams are crossing a small piece of water to get to another island from which it is thought they will before long be able to get onto the other side of the water. Towards night a storm of rain came on and the sound we heard was the pouring of the rain as we closed our eyes in sleep.

26 The water during the night rose very fast and the ox teams who left us yesterday are now entirely surrounded and standing to limbs in the flood. The ferry boat was immediately sent for and they are now conveying them as fast as possible to the opposite shore. A messenger who has just come up says that I am mistaken and that it is not our waggons but an Oregon company that are crossing[.] Mr[.] Babbitt is however ferrying across in his wagon box and taking over his paper, type, press &c.

27 no news from our [text missing] who went back to Kanesville[.] As it is impossible to get possession of the boat it was thought best to try and build a flat boat[.] Some Oregonians joined in the scheme and after a hard days work three large logs which it was thought would be sufficient were cut down and placed in a position where with oxen they could be place on dry ground[.] All the men engaged in it were in water the greater part of the day. No rain during the first part of the night – but toward morning another severe storm came on and gave us a drenching.

28 Rather warm to day but a good breeze makes it a pleasanter day than yesterday[.] After some deliberation our wagon bed was taken from the wheels the cover taken off and then an attempt made to cork it[.] After this was done Mr Snow[,] Mr Wright and Sec – went with some of our goods to the opposite side where they packed them in the rockaway and then returned about dark[.] The current of the creek is very swift and it was quite difficult to manage their boat which was the wagon box. They were very much fatigued and wet to the skin —

J[illegible]30 1 am —

May 31 Very early this morning we arose packed our wagons and made a hasty breakfast preparatory to our departure. We had engaged the day before our passage across the creek and joyful indeed was the prospect of leaving the place where we had so long been unwillingly detained. About 1/4 of a mile through water and we reached the place of embarkation[.] The mud was very deep and many heavily loaded wagons of Mr Halls Oregon train were waiting to cross. Two wagons at the time soon took them over and then came our turn[.] After crossing we proceeded about ½ of a mile through water and then about the same distance by land when we reached a beautiful camping ground where we had a clear stream of water and every convenience but wood. We had however brough[t] with us all we could find room for and thus were enabled to get our suppers[.] I had 6 additional men to supper and it was quite late when our preparations for the night were completed. It was very cold and windy and several Indians and half breeds were lurking around us all night.

June June 1 The cold this morning was quite in contrast with the flowers that were blooming around us but before long it became warmer and at length was quite comfortable[.] About noon Mr Halls Oregon train came past us besides some other trains or the remains of[.] Many were discouraged and some had lost their lives[.] I think five were drowned and one killed by Lightning—others turned back and sold their provisions. Several Indians were lurking around and gathering refuse articles—after obtaining as much as they could carry they packed it—then dexterously throwing it over their shoulders they departed to their wigwams. The children amused themselves with <by> gathering flowers with which they decorated the dinner table and by making miniature bows and arrows. The practice of archery is getting to be their favorite employment[.] About 4 o’clock the remainder of our train came up and made it seem much more like home

2 [Inserted in the left margin] <here Mr Babbit broke one of his baggage wheels and one of his whipple trees> We had Some delays in starting this morning—a wagon tounge [tongue] was found to be broken off[.] this had to be replaced and and also some whipple trees were to be made. After starting we proceeded without any further difficulty until we came within a short distance of our camping ground which was on the bank of the Platte[.] We found a bed of quicksands which made the road very bad[.] But bad as it was alas! for those who were tempted to leave it for the fair but treacherous green beside it They were sure to go down, down and three of our baggage wagons were so irretrievably set that they were obliged to take off the horses and draw them out with oxen[.] It was so late that ours had to be left and we passed the night as well as possible[.] It rained a little but our <camping> ground being on a knoll we did not suffer much inconvenience from the water[.] Mr Alexander was camping near us and from him we obtained some milk

Very cold damp and disagreeable[.] Some mending of broken wagons was speedily accomplished[.] We had soon after leaving a small creek to pass through but by searching found near the river a place where we could cross on dry ground. Every thing proceeded so well that we felt quite encouraged[.] Our camp ground was again on the Platte[.] This river has in some respects the character of the Mis[s]ouri[.] Large sand bars stretch sometimes nearly across it and it is generally shallow[.] Our water for camping purposes came from it but was far from being clear. The children had quite a play time before dark and improved it well. They picked & cooked 2 birds which they thought were excellently done. The ox teams were near us[.] Saw no Indians

4 <rain> About 20 minutes before eight this morning we were in motion[.] road bad and some rain[.] passed an Indian grave and about noon came to Shell creek which is the boundary between the O—& P—, A[f]ter this we passed through several places of deep water. We stopped at noon a short time when a small war party of Pawnees came up[.] they brought recommends to us and exacted from us a kind of toll for the privilege of passing over their territory[.] One or two of them <Several> were from their appearance chiefs and one wore in addition to his military coat a silver medal bearing the date of Vanburens [Van Buren’s] administration. In the afternoon we passed a very bad slough where the general baggage wagon had the whipple trees broken. Some of our party found[,] by going further up[,] a much better place where they crossed without any trouble[.] We camped at night without any trouble on the loup fork near its junction with the Platte[.] It is very wide and shallow. We should have been quite destitute of wood for cooking had we not been thoughtful enough to have brought with us some from our former camping place[.] We here resumed our custom of putting out a guard as we judged from the looks of the Indians we had met at noon that possibly they might have some intention to steal our horses. We had tried to purchase their Lariats but they would not sell them[.] There was no alarm during the night.

5 Our journey to day was through some very bad road but we passed on safely and about 12 came to the loup fork. A great many Oregonians were here and the bank of the river had quite a busy and town like appearance. A rude raft had been constructed and some of them were crossing[.] It had a frail and dangerous look and we came to the conclusion that we would go farther up and cross at the old fording place. We however stopped to get dinner and soon a shower of rain came up which lasted till nearly night. Although not compelled to do so we remained near the ferry all night during which we had a heavy shower of rain and our beds were nearly wet through.

6 Our little train was in motion a quarter past 8 and as we proceeded we passed many ox teams bound like us to the ford. On coming to the looking glass[,] a small creek[,] we found [it] swollen by the rain in such a manner that we could not cross immediately[.] Being obliged to wait we made ourselves as comfortable as possible. It is named looking glass from the clearness of the water[.] the stream is crooked with high banks[.] At evening I went down to the stream and took a bath which was quite a luxury.

7 This morning the creek was low enough for us to attempt to ford. Our carriage was so low that the water ran through it and filled the body but otherwise did no harm. We passed some very bad Sloughs in the forenoon but found to our great satisfaction that the greatest obstacle[,] the Beaver river[,] was bridged. At noon we stopped a short time on Plumb [Plum] creek which also had a bridge although a poor one. Near here formerly stood the Pawnee mission houses and though [they] have been destroyed by fire traces still remain of their gardens and cornfields[.] Ash Creek came next and here we had some trouble in crossing[.] Three teams which suffered injury remained behind for repairs while the rest proceeded to search out a camping ground on Cedar Creek. We had to day 3 double trees and 5 whipple trees broken which is more damage than we have ever heretofore received in <So> short a time.

8 We were Somewhat delayed in consequence of our misfortunes yesterday and I improved my spare time in going to a short time visit the remains of an Indian villiage and fortifications[.] A mud wall or rather the remains of one was still to be seen of from 1½ feet to two and a <half> feet. within this were many circular ridges of earth probably 30 feet in diameter[.] Within these were built the lodge none of which remained[.] At a short distance it quite resembled in appearance a modern garden[.] All these ridges were covered with a dense growth of weeds giving them the appearance of hedges of such weeds as are sure to follow the spade giving them the appearance of hedges, while wild rough spider wort and some other prairie flowers gave the place an appearance of much resembling a modern garden. I searched for some relic of its former day but saw nothing except the bleached bones of the buffalo and horse and a stove[.] the latter was quite a curiosity being the first one I have seen since I left the Missouri river. This train of the Pawnees was burned by the Sioux in <the fall> 1846. We passed Cedar creek without any difficulty after which we had good road—Some deep ravines but dry smooth road which continued until we reached the Loup Fork of the Platte[.] Here we were to attempt to ford but before the rout[e] could be staked out it became so late that we deferred it till morning.

9 Several ox teams crossed before us after which Mr Allen returned and took our baggage wagon over[.] We all crossed safely except the Countess who was left behind[.] Very indiscreetly indeed she attempted to come to us without assistance but her strength being inssufficient she was taken up when about half way across breathless chilled and nearly exhausted. On gathering our company together Some wished to camp there on the bank of the river for the rest of the day while the remainder chose to proceed. The latter carried the day so supplying ourselves with wood we proceeded about 12 miles. At evening there was every appearance of a storm and the deep ponds of water indicated that there had been some very heavy ones[.] We had been told we should find no water for 23 miles but instead we hardly found any thing else.

10 A heavy hard rain which came on after dark continued nearly all night and added quite a superfluous quantity of water to the already muddy road[.] Several bad creeks and Sloughs impeded our progress and at Prair[i]e Creek our wagon became set in the water and much of our clothing got wet as well as some of our provision. At this point we heard from Capt Day who crossed at the ferry. and joined Capt Owens camp. Near it were two graves bearing respectively the names of Egbert and Kellogg[.] At an early hour in the evening we reached Wood river found the crossing good and camped for the night at a small distance

11 Before 7 this morning we were on our way and at 10 stopped for a short nooning. At night the distance we had travelled placed us beyond the ox teams which had before been constantly in our way hindering us not a little[.] Our camp at night was on the main Platte river.

12 Again bidding adieu to our temporary home we pursued our journey[.] A young antelope obtained the evening before made us all a good breakfast[.] On the highlands to day we saw many small knolls with deep holes in them[.] These were the houses of prarie dogs[,] small animals of a social order who live in towns[.] The gopher is also a small prarie animal which burrows in the earth[.] Gave our dog to an ox company we passed in the fore part of the day.

Our nooning was at Elm creek—the crossing of this creek presented many difficulties but by making a general search we found a bridge. Even that however did not present accidents—one of the wagons having two wheels broken while coming up the bank. On account of this we were compelled to stop and make new ones[.] this took us till 10 the next day

12 At the crossing of Buffalo creek the baggage wagon was overturned and some time was taken in getting all again right. We only made a short drive in order to get time to dry some wet clothes[.] Mr B—left behind a sick horse[.] rain in the night

13 From our camp on the Platte we started not very early[.] camped at noon on Plat[t]e lake near which was a grave and at night again on the Platte and the sick horse gave us some anxiety but it seemed better after resting[.] Some men came to us in the night to enquire about lost or stolen horses and remained with us till morning.

14 Sunday[.] once more made a short drive to reach a cold spring and then camped for the day[.] This spring which is one of the most beautiful ones I ever saw was at the foot of the bluffs where the water came boiling from the ground clear cool and delicious[.] It came up in two places some white sand with it which soon settled to the bottom[.] This place is sacred to the memory of an oyster supper and lemonade. Towards night our hunters went out to try their luck and shot at a herd of Buffalos but failed to get one. p>15 At 20 minutes past six we were under motion[.] As the day advanced it grew quite warm[.] camped at noon near the Platte at the point where timber ceases. In the afternoon Mr [Stephen B.] Rose’s sick horse gave out and he was obliged to take it out of the harness[.] soon after it had several fits and acted in a manner that made him think she was possessed. Camped at evening on the north Bluff fork near some Oregonians who kindly gave us as much milk as we needed.

16 The sick horse is this morning unable to proceed and negotiations for another are going on which have resulted in the purchase of a carriage horse and span of mules named Fanny Eboles and Jenny Lind. Camped at noon near a spring and a few miles from the foot of the bluffs[.] A fine antelope taken in the morning made us an excellent supper at Duck weed [Duckwood] creek where we camped for the night. Some of our company were late in coming in on account of their horses giving out and we were obliged to send out and help them in.

17 Leaving duck weed creek we crossed rattle snake [Creek] and several <other> small ones and stopped at noon by the side of crooked [Muddy] creek[.] At night put up on watch creek.

18 At two o clock this morning the musquitoes [mosquitoes] forced us to quit our beds[.] The moon was shining brightly and the air perfectly still[.] The poor horses were running to and fro trying in vain to get away from their tormenters[.] Presently however clouds arose and a wind blowing up relieved us some from our sufferings[.] Left our camp ground at 5 in the morning and soon after came to the lone tree[.] The tree itself is a very common looking one somewhat bare, but like other things that have gained a name its fame has spread abroad and every traveller gives it a passing visit[.] I tried to get to it to see what names were carved upon <it> but a small creek of water prevented me[.] A few miles from here was ash Hollow which is quite a remarkable grove of ash covering 20 acres and Surrounded by high bluffs. The region around it is quite barren and the bluffs have Some very fantastic appearances resembling by turns mounds, castles, towers &c[.] We named one of them the flat iron and others bear in our guide books the names of “Ancient Bluff ruins[,] Castle bluff[.”] many extend their ragged projections far into the river. Were it not that they cover a vast width of country instead of being in ridges I should call them mountain formations on a Small scale. What lives beyond them I suppose no one knows, perhaps fair and fertile vales[.] Our camp ground at night was in another musquito bed[.] Last night we were forced to leave our beds at two o’clock on account of the annoyance they gave us and determined to not again be disturbed in the same way we tried the somewhat desperate expedient of setting fire to the praire grass on the opposite side of the road and next the river[.] This was either kill or cure for if they rushed to escape it they must come to us and make our position doubly worse. The poor foolish things fascinated by the glare rushed in a body to their own destruction leaving us more comfortable than we had been for many nights.

19 Some little dissatisfaction existed in the camp this morning but it gradually subsided. At Crab creek the wolves and ravens were prowling about what had evidently been a camping ground. Abany prickly pears now are to be seen and wild sage. We crossed the Cobble hills and camped at noon near the ancient Bluff ruins. These are bluffs of various forms Some resembling ancient castles with turrets gateways and arches[.] Many of them in a circular form have shelving projections of rock at the top and a slight covering of earth above it on which a few stunted evergreens have sprung giving them a fantastic appearance. Many rattle snakes lurk among the rocks and visitors are obliged to be cautious[.] From the top of one[,] chimney rock [Chimney Rock] is distinctly seen[.] About 5 o clock we overtook Mr Halls train and camped about 3 miles beyond them. We passed a cool comfortable night and were much refreshed.

20 We were somewhat detained this morning by Mr.—who was sent back for a lost horse. but at length proceeded without him[.] on going about 4 miles we unexpectedly overtook him[.] he had returned after dark and passed our camp without seeing us. Camped [missing pages]

7 The wolves howled so terribly last night that my slumbers are some disturbed. We heard in the morning that a man had died from one of the camps near by. At noon we stopped on quaking aspen creek[.] here we had some news from the valley and received a present of a quarter of vension [venison]. We had passed over some very rocky road and long hills but in the latter part of the day our roads were much better[.] One of our horses “Old Bull” gave out in the afternoon. We camped at night at the last crossing of the sweet water [River] and left both him and the gray mare to recruit and come on to the valley in a few miles[.] Both yesterday and to day we saw snow[.] passed some graves made this year and Soon Came to the south Pass[.] From this point we passed nothing was to be seen but thousands of acres of barren rolling table lands[.] not a tree or shrub in sight[.] Table rock was some miles distant but too far away to obtain much of an idea of its shape or size[.] It however appeared larger than Independence rock[.] camped at night on the Pacific creek.

9 Our course to day was as usual over sandy barren plains and at night camped on the Little Sandy. John here arranged to go to the valley by express and send to us at fort Bridger.

10 He left us this morning and his place as driver was supplied by Mr Bell. We drove all day without stopping and at night camped on the Big sandy[.] we had advanced 25 miles this day and our horses became very tired[.] Endless plains of sand without tree or shrub characterize these regions and the winds blow with unending fury driving clouds of sand and dust into our eyes [and] faces to the great annoyance of our drivers and detriment of stingers.

11 This morning at ten we arrived at green river where we were detained some time making necessary purchases. Several mormons and some Calafornians [Californians] were here[.] A part of our company forded the stream and we ferried across[.] quite a number of lodges were here and we had some conversation with the squaws of whom there were several[.] camped at night about five miles beyond on the green river[.] Mr [Broughton Davis] Harris had quite a fever at this point and seemed quite ill.

12 Mr H is better this morning[.] our course was first to Blacks Fork and then to Hams Fork where we passed the night in a beautiful green nook among the willows on the shore.

13 Sunday—Last night we had some rain but it was pleasant and cool[.] this morning One of our horses was gone which detained us beyond our usual starting time. At noon we stopped for a short time on Blacks fork[.] While here we had another shower of rain which made it very muddy and bad. After the rain ceased we pursued our journey and went a few miles when we camped for the night on the same stream.

14 We had another hard shower and some hard wind last night but it is clear this morning and the sun shines as brightly as though he would make amends for his breif season of [illegible]. About noon we came to Bridger and previous to reaching the fort we crossed 4 very rapid streams[.] one of them I think was the worst one we have found being both deep and rapid[.] Many indians were here and others constantly arriving[.] It was expected that in a few days the whole Snake nation would be there to trade after which they would depart for their distant homes. About five o’clock we left there and proceeded 6 miles[.] camped at a cold spring[.] the night was very cold

15 We ascended some very high ridges to day and the highest one we have to pass during our journey which is 7-700 feet above the level of the sea. We alos [also] passed several sulphur or coperas springs[.] at night we stopped near a cold spring in a sheltered spot among poplars and other trees[.] It was truly delightful to feel that we were once more in the woods.


16 From our camping place we proceeded to Bear river and then to cold spring where we passed our nooning[.] The [illegible] thought this part of the mountains is beautiful and the [illegible] green. We are daily expecting some of our friends to meet us and feel quite anxious to see them[.] at night we camped in one of the Ranges[.] It was a very cold night and the water we left standing was covered with a coat of ice.

17 About 10 this morning we met a messenger from the valley with two horses for us[.] this was quite an aid to us as one of our horses were lame. In the afternoon we met two more from the valley[.] camped at night near the long hill

[Remainder of journal missing]