Thomas Bullock journals, 1843-1849, Journal, 1847 April-June.
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- Church History Library, MS 1385
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- Brigham Young Vanguard Company (1847)
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- Barnabas Lathrop Adams
- Rufus Allen
- Truman Osborn Angell
- Millen Atwood
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- Robert Erwin Baird
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- George Pierce Billings
- Francis Boggs
- George Washington Brown
- John Brown
- Nathan Thomas Brown
- Thomas Bullock
- Charles Allen Burk
- Jacob D. Burnham
- Albert Carrington
- William Carter
- James Case
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- Zebedee Coltrin
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- Edmund Lovell Ellsworth
- William Adam Empey
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- Addison Everett
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1847 MarchApril 7—Dr. gave orders for me to get ready & start with his teams this afternoon to the Camp of the Pioneers, to transact the business, & write the instructions to be left for the brethren at Winter Quarters,—made up a Mail of between 3 & 400 letters to go to the Battalion—packed up his papers—hunted his cow—& about 5 P.M made ready, & started by the new & old Burying grounds, & encamped for the night on the prairie, without wood or water—a keen North Wind blowing all the time at night.
March April 8. at Sunrise started for the Camp, & arrived there at 10 min to 10 A.M. & there found Orson Pratt & Wilford Woodruff of the Twelve, 3 Carriages & 28 Wagons. Prest. Young left his Camp for his farm, with Isaac Morley, John Young & bro Grant in his Carriage at ½ past 9 A.M. Luke Johnson & A[lbert]. P[erry]. Rockwood started at the same time from W[inter]. Quarters. The Palm Tree in beautiful bloom—grass springing in all directions. Clear Sky. keen N. wind & a flock of 33 cranes flying high in the air, round the Pioneer encampment—several wagons joined the camp thro' the day, the Prest. returned from his farm about 3. Amasa Lyman having met him & brought the news of the arrival of P[arley]. P. Pratt at Winter Quarters. O[rson]. Pratt started for home, & in half an hour after was followed by Prest. Young & [Amasa Mason] Lyman. Also John Young, Isaac Morley, & several others. at the same time Brown, Crosby & Co. from Mississippi passed over the hill, in 7 Waggons to the next Point, en route for the Horn. Elder [Wilford] Woodruff returned from shooting at the Sun set. I killed a Mosquito
March 9. Pleasant day, fresh Breeze from the West. the brethren danced one Cotillion to w[h]ile away the time—W. Woodruff & a many of the brethren left the Camp to go to Winter Quarters. at 10 min. to 2. G[eorge]. A[lbert]. Smith, Luke Johnson, & others arrived in camp bringing the intelligence of the Presidency being on the road & that they would soon be here. Orders were given by O. Pratt to hitch up & be ready which infused cheerfulness into every man—they went to work with alacrity immediately[.] afterwards Prest. Young, [Heber C.] Kimball & [Willard] Richards arrived & as quick as the cows were got ready they commenced walking up the hill, at 3 o clock most of the teams had started from their encampment, travelled over a very broken country, crossed one very Bad mirey place two or three of the teams only required doubling, & with the assistance of about 30 of the brethren having been thro', got over without much difficulty. 64 Wagons & Carriages, continued our route, and encamped at half past 7 P.M. in a valley, where there was no wood, but water, & a pretty sprinkling of Grass. B. Young[,] H.C. Kimball & W. Richards went to cutting grass for their Cattle with knives. & afterwards instructed teams to see that all was right.
Saturday 10 A Skim of ice on the Water. the brethren cut hay, while the Cattle were paired of[f], the grass is in pretty good condition, Water plenty—attended to their Cattle & at 20 min past 7 the teams began to roll up the hill, having a delightful morning to start with. & a slight N.E. wind. travelled on the divide of a rolling prairie, crossed the creek "Papion" [Papillion] and also a marshy creek, at both which places the "Mormon team" was called into requisition. on the banks of this last Marsh the Camp halted to feed the Cattle. TB gathered a Snow Drop, saw a Dragon fly; delightful at noon; after stoping about one hour, we again rolled, 5 teams arrived at "the Horn" about 6 o clock, where the brethren were busily engaged rafting over the Wagons, on our arrival we found that the River we had seen in the distance was none other than the celebrated "Platte", the highway of our future journey, which caused joy & rejoicing in my Soul to my Heavenly Father. Cotton Wood Trees in full blossom. Slippery Elm Tree in leaf. also Willows. El[der]. Woodruff's teams crossed over ½ past 6 in consequence of Indians prowling about, a Guard of eight men were detailed for night duty—
Sunday 11. A Smart Breeze from the South, which turned into a very warm morning. all the teams belonging to the Company were crossed by 20 min. to 10, on a Raft. when Prest. B. Young, H.C. Kimball, and Bishop Whitney drove up, & immediately afterwards some of the Wagons of the second part of the Pioneer Camp came in sight, when they were confirmed to be crossed over, and at 20 minutes to 4, the 72nd Wagon was rafted over. thus making 69 Pioneer Wagons—3 return wagons—(72) 3 return men—136 Pioneers, 2 Women & 2 Children; when they were crossed over, they immediately started to their place of rendezvous—close to a timbered part of the banks of "the Horn." this morning I was informed by Orson Pratt that he last night took an observation by the Pole Star, & he found that our encampment ws 41°. 16 min. N. Lat:—on the arrival of the last portion of the Camp I learned that Dr. W. Richards had his lead mare either strayed, or stolen by the Indians. Present of the Twelve in Camp. B. Young, H.C. Kimball, W. Richards, O. Pratt, W. Woodruff, G[eorge]. A[lbert]. Smith, A. Lyman & E[zra]. T[aft]. Benson. at dark Prest. Young called for a role of the Brethren whether they would go 16 miles on their journey tomorrow morning when the feeling was to go ahead.
Monday 12. the night Guard called the brethren up by day break when the bustle of Camp life commenced, the Brethren prepared their teams, to go on their onward journey & commenced rolling out, while the Twelve & several others started out on their return home, at [blank space] crossed "the Horn" . at [blank space] Prests. Kimball & Young passed us—we staid at the old Camping ground an hour to feed our teams, and at 20 min. to 6 W. Richards & T[homas] B[ullock] arrived at the Office in Winter Quarters. after attending to our family duties President Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, Orson Pratt, G. A. Smith, Ezra T. Benson, and Parley P. Pratt (who had lately returned from his mission to England) also Newel K. Whitney, Joseph Young and T. Bullock met in Council in the Recorders Office. Parley P. Pratt reported that 469 Sovereigns were in possession, from England. It was motioned that it be left entirely to the disposal of Prest. Young—sec[onde]d & carried. Instructions were given concerning the return of American Elders who were on Missions to England, several questions asked, and answered. then Prest. Young said "I want Thomas Bullock to go with the Pioneers, to keep history, and come back with the Twelve in the Fall," which all the Council confirmed by saying I [Aye]. other business was transacted, particulars of which, see the Minutes, (filed). at 20 min. to 11 Council separated
Tuesday 13. all the Twelve, (who were Pioneers) were very busy preparing extra teams to return to the Pioneer Company which were ready to start about 5. at 20 min. to 5 TB left Winter Quarters (his wife & children sick) with W. Richards extra team—by way of the mill, thro' the Wood & encamped on the prairie in company with David Grant, at the Cross Roads in the dark. [blank space] Pleasant day. John Taylor arrived in Winter Quarters about [blank space]
Wednesday 14. A Slight sprinkling of rain the early part of the morning. arose at daylight, fed the cattle, and while in the act of hitching my cattle to the wagon, Four Omaha Indians came rushing down upon us, waving their standards covered with Turkies Feathers, hallowing and yelling, like Savages, which frightened my cattle that they broke away from the tongue & ran as if they were mad, two or three hills in the direction of Winter Quarters. I after them at full rate, succeeded in heading, and turning them back, after the loss of about another hour, during which time one drew his bow & arrow, threatening to shoot one of my oxen, & another drawing his gun, we had to allay their excitement by giving them our bread. they were not satisfied with that, but demanded more to take with them. after that was given them, one had the boldness to come to my wagon & attempted to take the front of my Wagon Cover to make him a head dress, but I repelled him, & he went away in anger. we then hitched up & started on our journey. in about two hours afterwards we had a very pleasant light rain. continued our route till we stopt to feed at the old Camp ground about an hour. when we started crossed the "Papion" [Papillion] River, which bottom was covered with flowers, after another halt, we continued our route to the second Creek where we encamped for the night, directly afterward, bro Rockwood & Lorenzo Young passed in the boat & we again hitched up to follow them to the Timber where we were told to camp, the President, H.C. Kimball, & E.T. Benson passed us about 6. When they encamped they made signal lights to guide us to their Camp where we arrived about ½ past 8—drove our teams down the hollow, & staid the night in peace. Pleasant stay with a North Wind. made a fire in the dry grass.
Thursday 15 Severe frost in the night, skim of ice on the Water. about 8 we started again on our journey, arrived at the "Elk Horn", ferried over at 11 & commenced our journey to the Platte, came to a patch of grass where we halted about an hour to feed, then started again—crossed a bad mud hole where G.A. Smith's & my Wagon Stuck. doubled teams, assisted each other out & arrived at Camp 20 min to 5. after travelling about _____ [sic] 20 miles close to a Cotton Wood grove, & a beautiful sand bank to take our Cattle on to the Water. Professor Orson Pratt reports [4 blank lines]
at 20 minutes to 8 Prest. Young mounted the front of his wagon & called aloud "Attention the Camp of Israel" when the brethren assembled at his Wagon & he addressed them in a short speech (see the minutes on file) dismissed with benediction at 3 min. past 8—a pleasant day. a pleasant day from Winter Quarters 50 miles
Friday 16 Attended to Cattle and other duties: at [blank space] the brethren assembled together at the rear of the Presidents Wagon, & were addressed by G.A. Smith, H.C. Kimball, N.K. Whitney, & B. Young (minutes on file)[.] they were formed into a circle round the President & counted off[.] 143 Pioneers. Stephen Markham and A.P. Rockwood were appointed Captains of 100s; the captains of 50s & 10s also—Stephen Markham then drew out for the Night Guard 50 men
Thomas Tanner Cap[tai]n.
Stephen H. Goddard
John G. Luce
xxxxxSylvester H. Earl
George R. Grant
William P. Vance
Samuel H. Marble
John W. Norton
Francis M. Pomeroy
Horace M. Frink
Hans C. Hanson
William A.O. Smoot
Barnabas S. Adams
Alexander P. Chessley
Appleton M. Harmon
Gilburd [Gilbard] Summe
Andrew S. Gibbons
William A. King
Thomas Harman Capt
John H. Tibbets [Tippets]
See May 4th
The meeting then separated. afterwards W. Richards dictated his Family Epistle—& Presidents B. Young, W. Richards, & W. Woodruff heard read the Epistle to the Saints at Winter Quarters, which was signed by B. Young & W. Richards—& sent by Bishop Whitney to Prest. John Smith—a wagon passed the camp en route to the Pawnee Village belonging to the traders. report that the Pawnees were within 40 miles of us, they had removed their village to that place, the warriors had returned from their hunt. about 15 days & were about 4000 strong. Professor Orson Pratt reports [four blank lines]
Prest. Young & Richards sent to G.D. Watt (Scotland) for 200 lbs Phonotype (copy on file)
at 2 o'clock the camp removed from their location, removed up the Platte about <4 miles> and encamped again at 10 min. to 4 near a Cotton Wood Grove, where there was a pretty good sprinkling of Green grass, which the cattle ate with avidity—also some rushes that were in the timber, on the river bank & Island—Pleasant day
Saturday 17 In the night there was a very strong Wind, accompanied with Frost, when I arose found the ice one inch thick in the Water Buckets, the Guard complained much of the severity of the Weather, & the brethren generally wrapt themselves in their Buffalo Skins & Blankets—after attending to Cattle, orders were given to travel in companies of Tens, at 5 min: past 9 the teams were hitched up, & H.C. Kimball's Division led the road, travelled over a deep sandy plain, surrounded on each side by Willows, high Weeds, & dry grass, and after traveling _____________ [sic] 8 miles we came to a halt at 12 oclock, formed a line from North to South fronting a Cotton Wood grove on the West, all in line at 12 min. past 1—in the afternoon a bed of rushes was discovered, to which the cattle were driven & kept there until eve. Luke Johnson reported to me that he had seen some large mounds, as if there had been a great Battle fought & the slain buried in them, about a mile from camp. One of the Brethren found a nest with 4 Eggs in it, the birds pretty near hatched, which shows that Spring was getting advanced, also gathered some Hennekench & Prickly Ash. an Indian was seen on the South side of the River. the bugle was sounded about half past 5, the brethren assembled round the President when they fell into a Regimental column under their Captains of Tens, when it was voted that we act as one Regiment, Stephen Markham, Colonel, John Pack & Shadrack Roundy, Majors; Brigham Young, General &c and Wilford Woodruff (1), Ezra T. Benson (2), Phinehas H. Young (3), Luke Johnson (4), Stephen H. Goddard (5), Charles Shumway (6), James Case (7), Seth Taft (8), Howard Egan (9), Appleton Harmon (10), John S. Higbee(11), Norton Jacobs (12), John Brown (13 ), & Joseph Matthews (14), to be Captains of Tens—Council was given the Brethren (see minutes) & then dismissed. I hunted up & hitched all Dr's. Cattle, after Supper W. Richards dictated a letter to G.D. Watt. [three blank lines]
Sunday 18. A slight frost in the night, thin skim of ice on Water. Cloudy until about noon when it cleared up—in the morning W Richards dictated letter to Robert Campbell—& also to his family, I copied letter to G.D. Watt which Prests. Young & Richards signed. I wrote to my wife, sent all the letters by Ellis Eames a brother who was returning on account of his health—about 10. Seven teams passed our camp loaded with peltry belonging to the traders who were returning from their trade with the Paunees[Pawnees.] Wind in the South East & cool—in afternoon, clear—& wind South West—pleasant—the brethren kept this day as a day of rest, & attending to their Cattle. about 5 oclock P.M. as brother James Case was cutting down a Cotton Wood Tree a sudden gust of wind blew it in a contrary direction, & in falling, one of the branches knocked the eye out of an Ox's head belonging to John Taylor, about ½ past 6 Prests. Young, Benson, & Captains of companies met in the Grove where directions were given that at 5 A.M. the Horn should be blown & every man then arise to pray, attend to their Cattle, & have every thing done, in order that all may start by seven o clock. that each extra man should travel on the off side of his team with his gun loaded over his shoulder; that each driver shall have his gun so placed that he can lay his hand on it in a moment; that every gun shall have a piece of leather over the nipple, or in the pan of his gun, having their caps, & Powder Flasks ready for a moments warning. The brethren will halt for an hour to have dinner, which must be ready cooked—when the Camp comes to halt for the night, the front of every man's wagon shall be outwards, where the fires shall be built; the horses to be all secured inside the Circle—at ½ past 8 the Horn will be blown when every man must retire to their wagons & pray, & be in bed by 9 o'clock; except the night guard; all fires to be put out at bed time—all the Camp to travel in close order. these orders to continue in force until further orders. the Captains were also instructed to drill their men. at ½ past 8 the Horn was blown & each man is to retire to his Wagon.
Monday 19 the camp was aroused at 5 by the blowing of the Horn, the brethren went to prayers, arose on a clear blue morning, but hazy in the horizon, attended to cattle, at 7 hitching up & at ½ past 7 the Camp was mostly travelling, after leaving our encampment about a mile, we came to where a large battle had been fought among the Lamanites, for the distance of about a mile we walked thro' a compact mass of graves & apparently a fourth of a mile wide—on the outside ran a ridge of Earth on which was also a number of graves; some of the brethren report that while travelling yesterday they found a high entrenchment as if made to fortify themselves inside from the attack of some other people—and no doubt that this was the battle field. we continued our route over a level prairie in some places very sandy—we passed several pools where the brethren enjoyed themselves in shooting Ducks & other Wild Fowl—the banks of the Platte lined with Cotton Wood Trees—the South side of the Platte hilly. we camped at 20 minutes to 2 on the Banks of the Platte to feed our teams. received a mail of 30 letters by John C. Little & Porter Rockwell from Winter Quarters which were soon distributed to their owners—Porter Rockwell also brought W. Richards mare which he had found with a Omaha Jug round her neck—at ½ past 2. started again—when George A. Smith reported the death of Nancy Adelia daughter of George & Nancy Smith at Winter Quarters on Saturday 17th instant at 12 oclock at night—we had a warm afternoon. travelled 20 miles & camped at ½ past 6 on the banks of the Platte. Attended the Cattle until after it was dark. lightning in the East.
received a letter from G.D. Grant of 17th inst' respecting Major Miller & the Omahas
Tuesday 20 Very strong wind the better part of the night. Horn was blown at 5 to wake the Camp—the Cattle turned loose to graze—at ½ past 6 gathered—at ¼ past 7 the Camp started & soon passed an Indian mound and some Buffalo Grass. crossed Shell Creek where was Timber on both sides. then travelled over a level road the ground pretty well covered with Green Grass—halted at noon to feed—when the Wind changed to the West—in about an hour we started from the Pool & feeding place—& continued to travel until 4 minutes past 6 when we again halted on the Platte. 18 miles very little wood on the banks, the Timber being principally on the Islands. this was a warm day & made dusty travelling. I washed &c & then herded the cattle—after blowing Horn for bedtime—Dr. dictated a letter to Major Miller, & another to David Spencer & Daniel Russell. in answer to a letter from Robert Campbell & G.M. Grant to Prest. Young which were taken to the Prest. for approval, who on reflecting at the insulting letter of Major Miller to him, considered it not worth the while to write to him but gave orders for the other to be copied which was got ready for him & the 3rd signature—Dr. also gave orders for me to write a letter to Wm. Kay which was done.
Jesse C. Little was appointed aid to Colonel Markham, & sanctioned by Prest. Young.
Wednesday 21. Dr. came & woke me up before the horn was blown to attend to Cattle—I got up, herded, & attended to all the Cattle—a Cold East Wind already morning—at the 2nd horn, the ox teams started, and in about two miles travel, we met the first Pawnee riding on his pony, immediately afterward several others came up & appeared friendly. they shook hands & continued from Wagon to Wagon—a little rolling eminance was met with every now & then on the Prairie; at 25 minutes after 12 came in sight of the Pawnee Village, where the Pawnee tribes were assembled with A.P. Sarpy & others bartering their Buffalo Robes &c for tobacco &c[.] About 1 we formed nearly a half circle round a bank of the River, to feed & Water our Cattle, & during our halt for an hour, the Chief & a great many Indians came in. Prest Young gave the Chiefs some Powder; Lead, Caps, Tobacco, Flour, Meal &c but the chiefs were not satisfied; we hitched up our teams & came away—My oxen were very much scared at the Indians, & were very unruly—as was also some other cattle & horses—about 2 Thunder was heard, which was soon followed by lightning & rain, & continued to descend very prettily until about 4 o'clock, when a strong East wind arose & assisted to blow us forward on our journey, we had several sudden hollows & rises to pass, in the prairie—We camped at 5 min: to 6 at the Mouth of the Looking Glass Creek, as it runs into the Loup Fork, having travelled 18 miles—immediately afterwards the brethren were called together & 100 called out to form a Guard for the night; Prests. Young, Kimball, Benson, & the rest of the Twelve on Guard the fore part of the night.
Thursday 22 I was called up at ½ past 12 & went on the morning Guard. Cold morning. at the sound of the Horn, the Guard relieved, when a beautiful morning came up with a North East Wind—a many swallows flying this morning, also saw an Eagles nest. fetched up oxen, fed, hitched up—at ¼ past 7 the ox teams started. in about 1½ miles we crossed the Looking Glass Creek, rolled over several small hills & hollows, passed over a high mound, on the top of which was an Indian Grave, this was a pretty view of the country on all sides, then travelled over a level country covered with dry Buffalo grass & camped for the noon on Beaver Creek. Prest. Young, Kimball & several of the brethren went to work at grading the hill—at 10 minutes after 2 crossed the creek[,] travelled over a prairie, up a steep hill, & camped at the "Pawnee Mission" house formerly occupied by "Rev[eren]d. J. Dunbar" having travelled about 20 miles. halted in the yard, fed our Cattle on Hay & Corn Fodder, which the cattle seemed to think was very good for a change—about 6 P.M. as George A. Smith was watering his horse, he sprang suddenly, throwing George against the bank, the horse having his hind foot on G.A.'s, foot & his fore foot on G's breast, in which situation he continued until the brethren took the horse off him. it was very fortunate that the place was muddy, so he escaped with only a few bruises, having his life lengthened out & spared to him, for further usefulness. We are now 133 miles from Winter Quarters. Thomas Tanner drilled his company with the Cannon, putting them through their evolutions. Thomas Tanner, Stephen H. Goddard, Seeley Owens, Thomas Woolsey, John G. Luce, Horace Harrington, Charles D. Barnham, Sylvester H. Earl, George Scholes, & Rufus Allen form the gun detachment.
Friday 23 Attended to my Cattle, & then filled up my Journal on the Hay Stack . Compared distances[.] Thomas Bullock & Horace K. Whitney making it 133 miles, William Clayton & Albert P. Rockwood calling it 134 miles. [when this history is written out, get their Journls] [sic]a delightful Spring morning: Prest. Young & several others went to discover the proper place to ford the River. they returned about 11, when all the Spare hands were called for, with Spades & Shovels &c to go & grade the hill down to a creek. I had more time to see the place[.] it consists of two double log houses and six single smaller ones with pig pens & ashes Cribs to each set, also two ricks of good hay, & a yard to enclose Corn Fodder, several yards to enclose Horses & Cattle—two fields fenced in with Posts & Rails where corn had grown last year. also fruit trees and a beautiful little creek of Soft Water running behind the same, the whole making a very pleasant retired spot for a farm & where "Revd J. Dunbar" Missionary at the "Pawnee Mission" had lived. we left the place at 10 min past 12[.] crossed the Creek (very bad place) in a short time we passed a large Corn field without any fence to protect it, & directly afterwards left the Pawnee town with its corn Gardens, descending a table land, crossed another creek, travelled on to the Loup Fork where several Pioneers were wading it, to find a proper place to cross our Wagons[.] Orson Pratt's Carriage, H.C. Kimball's wagon, Wilford Woodruff's Carriage, & [blank space] Wadsworth's wagon crossed over as an Experiment, but it was so very bad, that we had to decline it for this night. so it was concluded to encamp for the night & make a raft. the teams were again reloaded & started a short distance, when they fell in order of encampment at 10 min to 6 on a Bluff opposite the crossing place. a beautiful day & travelled about 6 miles in the evening[.] W. Richards reported that he rode thro the Pawnee Town about half a mile West of us & had counted the remains of about 175 houses which had been burnt to the ground by the Sioux Indians, while the Pawnees were on their hunting expedition[.] also great numbers of holes that had been used for Caching their Corn &cabout 8 P.M. The Presidency with the captains of Tens assembled on the edge of the Bluff, at the sound of the horn to take into consideration the propriety of making a raft to carry over the goods; when Prest Young suggested that there be two rafts built which was made a motion of by W. Richards & carried. It was voted that Tarlton Lewis, & Thomas Woolsey manage the two rafts[.] voted that Tarlton Lewis pick 10 men out of First Division to manage it[.] voted that Thomas Woolsey pick 10 men out of Second Division[,] &cvoted that Stephen Markham manage the Stock & Teams in crossing& the meeting then broke up.
John I. Fowler
John M. Freeman
Markus B. Thorpe
George A. Smith
Ezra T. Benson
Barnabas J. Adams
John C. Little
Phinehas H. Young
John Y. Green
Trueman O. Angel
Albert P. Rockwood
Joseph S. Scofield
George M. Grant
Stephen H. Goddard
Henry G. Sherwood
Sylvester H. Earl
Samuel H. Marble
William A. Smoot
Franklin B. Dewey
Franklin G. Loose [Losee]
Franklin B. Stewart
John S. Eldredge
Charles D. Barnham
Almon M. Williams
Robert T. Thomas
James W. Stuart
Levi N. Kendall
Heber C. Kimball
William A. King
Appleton M. Harmon
Horace K. Whitney
Orson K. Whitney
Orin Porter Rockwell
Nathaniel Thomas Brown
Francis M. Pomeroy
John S. Higee
Perry Fitz Gerald
John H. Tibbets
Charles A. Harper
John W. Norton
Hans C. Hanson
Hark Lay (Black)
Oscar Crosby (Black)
Alexander P. Chessley
Green Flake (Black)
Clarissa Decker Young
Ellen Sanders Kimball
Perry Young (child)
Sabrisky Young (child)
Saturday 24 all up at the Sound of the Horn, when it was discovered that a horse belonging to Phinehas Brigham Young, & driven by John Y. Green was dead, it having fallen into a small ravine & the chain by which it was fastened to the post drawn tight round his neck, which had caused suffocation—the Captains with their men went to work to make the two Rafts in accordance with the votes of last night, while others unloaded some of the wagons, carrying the load on their shoulders down the cliff to the boat which was then rowed over; the light loaded teams at the same time crossing the River at the lower crossing place—I was tending the Cattle—went thro' the remains of the Toun which was about half a mile long. I will here observe that the entrance to their houses were invariably fronting the East—an observe that they have a knowledge of masonry—each house had its stable, & 1, 2, or 3 Cachet holes close by. the whole was surrounded by an embankment & outside of that a deep wide ditch as an entrenchment, some of the brethren went thro' their burial ground & saw about 40 skulls & bones scattered about —I went up the high hill about a mile North & went round several graves on the highest tip. there were also graves scattered about on the sides of the hill—from the top of the highest hill I had a very extensive view, & could distinctly tarce the bindings & course of the Platte for many miles; returning down the hill was a beautiful butterfly—on my return drove in the Cattle, fed, & hitched up[.] the brethren continued rowing the goods over the River in the boat, while the light loaded wagons to continued crossing at the Ford, until a pretty good road was made on the Quicksand, or more properly now rolled Pressed sand; one of the Rafts floated down the River a few minutes before the last team forded the River—the last Wagon crossed over at 20 minutes to 3—thus passing our greatest obstacle on our route without any accidents for which blessing from our Heavenly Father, all the Camp felt to render thanks & praise to the Lord, & rejoicing at the prosperity of our journey to this place. allowed the teams time to graze & again started on our route, passing the remains of a number of Wicka ups, travelling over Green grass—& encamped on the South side of the Loup Fork having a long pool, & Wood on our right, & a thick wood on our left. at 30 minutes after 5—travelled about 4 miles. a beautiful day.
Sunday 25th The camp arose at the sound of the Horn, attended to their Cattle, and observed it as a day of rest, for meditation, prayer & praise. all was harmony, peace, & love, and an holy stillness prevailed throughout the day. the principal sounds heard were the tinkling of the cow Bells, & the scream of Wild Geese as they flew past our Camp—the sky was beautiful with a South wind.
about 5 P.M. The brethren were called together to worship the Supreme, when Prest. Young called on the Choir to sing "This land was once a garden place," followed by H.C. Kimball making prayers to our Heavenly Father; several of the brethren then spoke their feelings, while G.A. Smith was relating the Prophet Joseph's instructions, not to kill any of the animals or birds, or any thing created by Almighty God that has life, for the sake of destroying it. a large Wolf came out of the Wood on our right hand & walked very leisurely within about 50 rods past our camp; as much as to say the Devil & I are determined to prove whether you will practice, what is now taught. all the brethren saw it, but, the meeting continued—& Prest. Young gave some useful instruction (see the minutes on file) dismissed at Sun down—at moonlight we met again to organize a company of Buffalo hunters. when Thomas Woolsey the Capt.[,] John Brown, John S. Higbee, O.P. Rockwell, Thomas Brown, James Matthews, Amasa Lyman & Wilford Woodruff were chosen the horsemen—and Phinehas H. Young, Tarlton Lewis, John Pack, Joseph Hancock, Edmund Ellsworth, Roswell Stevens, Edson Whipple, Barnabas L. Adams, Benjamin F. Stewart, Jackson Redding and Eric Glines were chosen for footmen. it was then voted that the Twelve go & hunt when they please.
Monday 26 The Camp was awoke this morning at ½ past 3 by the blowing of the Horn & hearing from the Guard[.] the alarm being made that Indians were near us; which turned out to be that John Eldridge, Levi Kendall & Stephen Kelsey of the Guard were the persons who saw them. John Eldridge says he thought he saw a couple of Wolves coming to the Camp & determined to have some fun, run as if to chase them, when they rose up on their feet & turned out to be two Indians, he pulled his pistol but it did not go off, he then called to Kendall & Kelsey who fired their guns, four other Indians having jumped up & run—a general alarm being raised nearly all the men were found to be at their posts, under their commanders of Tens—who continued on Guard till Sunrise. the Horn was again blown at 5 for all to get up. herded the oxen until horn blew, drove in, fed & hitched up. the camp were all started by ¼ past 8. the horse teams going first, ox teams last making an entire new road on the South side of the Loup Fork. travelled over a Prairie, covered with dry grass, & great many Prairie Daisies scattered about, both black & white, the face of the country is now beginning to change. we had to cross many sloughs & small ridges. the large trees disappear & instead thereof have small stunted scrubby trees, & willows, on the margin of the River. Rolled at noon by one of the Sloughs where were 4 many Fishes; in about an hour started again, having a West Wind, & Blue Sky, a very pleasant day; in the afternoon small White Clouds floating in the West. on our left hand is a continuous ridge of high land about two miles distant. on the other side of the River is a similar ridge. John Y. Green's team tired out in the evening. during the afternoon crossed 98 trails heading to the river—some conjecture them to be Indian trails but when they some places 28, 18, 13 &c in a bunch.I conjecture them to be Buffalo trails going to the River to drink. at Capt Fremont (I believe) express such things very common on the Platte River. we camped for the night on a clear stream of Water down in a ravine <17 miles> in the neighborhood discovered Buffalo tracks, hair, & dung. some horses straying away to[o] far from Camp; Prest Young called to the brethren to attend to their horses: he has frequently called on the brethren "take care of your horses; they are straying away," &c[.] I herded Cattle & also assisted in driving in ten horses, & mules. about 8 oclock another alarm was given that an Indian was riding away a horse; the brethren flew to arms, & horses, & several went in pursuit, they having returned unsuccessful; Prest. Young, Kimball, Lyman; and Thomas Grover, Joseph Matthews, Luke Johnson, John Brown, & about half a dozen others, mounted their horses and went in pursuit, after travelling more distance, they also returned, unsuccessful; at ½ past 10.
Tuesday 27 Early in the morning P. Rockwell, Jos. Matthews, J. Eldredge & Thos. went on horseback to track the lost two horses, discovered both trails; where one had been tied up in a Willow Bed & pawed away the Earth some 6 inches. followed the trail to within about 1½ miles of our Saturday night camping ground; when Porter Rockwell thought he saw a Wolf, determined to shoot it, descended from his horse, levelled his gun to fire which brought up the resurrection of 15 Pawnee Indians, who running to seize him & Matthews horses; Rockwell fast jumped on his horse & levelled his Pistol, which caused them to draw back. the 15 Indians were armed with Bows & Arrows, & Guns ready for fight but were bluft by the 4 brethren. the Indians got enraged, retreated about 50 yards & fired 6 guns at the brethren, sending the balls whistling close by their heads. not being able to gain the two Stolen horses, they returned & fired the Prairie to purify it by fire—the Camp started at 8. horse teams, then 2nd Division ox teams, & last 1st Div: ox teams, crossed the Creek, & then the dividing ridges of hills. in the middle saw some Aloes growing [illegible] the prairie daisey. & a many pink flowers—found a small Chamelion [chameleon] , a pretty little harmless reptile. pursued our journey next over some ridges of Sand, not a tree to be seen. & at length was gladdened by a halt in the bottom where was a plenty of Green grass the brethren set to work & dug three wells, getting to water which has a very Copperas like taste—having halted an hour again pursued our journey until we arrived on the banks of Wood creek <6 P.M> where was the best grass we have yet come to on our journey. turned out Cattle to feed on the rich herbage—I caught a mud Turtle with my hands. directly afterwards a Storm came on. the wind blew very hard. all hands had to lock Wagon Wheels. the lightning flashed, the thunder rolled, but not much rain came. the Wind then changed from West to N.E. the Storm going round the camp towards the South. after Rockwell & Matthews had given the result of their mission; Col. Markham came to tell Prest Young that one of his team was shot in the leg—it turned out that Capt Brown in pulling his Coat out of his Wagon, pulled at the same time his gun which discharged itself thro' the hind end of the Wagon, shooting the horse in the near fore leg, the ball breaking the bone, & lodging in the flesh. It was then reported to me that Prest Young & Kimball chased an Antelope, which Capt Brown wounded, then Wilford Woodruff shot it. & which was finally killed by Roswell Stevens. about 3 P.M.
(I had omitted in its order) altho' making a new road, a deal of dust was raised, & the Wind blowing from S.W. sent it along the line.
After the horse teams had camped for the night at 5. Prest. Young returned with several horses & mules, to assist forward the ox teams which arrived at 6½ P.M. 18 miles
Wednesday 28 Herded, watered Cattle, & filled up my Journal. Pleasant N.E. wind. Clouds in the East drawing vapor from the Earth. the grass is in good condition, 6 or 8 inches high, several violets & butterflies seen. the brethren engaged, in grading the hill down into the creek, to ease the teams in crossing over, so that at about 9 oclock the teams began to cross & be pulled over[.] left at this place a small board, giving particulars of our Camp to any, who may hereafter pass this way; while the teams were crossing, Joseph Matthews shot the horse belonging to Lewis Barney thro' the heart to put it out of its misery. it died almost instantly. about ¼ to 10 the Camp started from this Creek, taking a South Westerly direction, along very level ground, having the sight of Grand Island timber all the way, & came to its banks, to refresh our teams at ¼ to 3. staid an hour, & then continued our route until 20 min past 6 when we camped for the night, a short distance from the Water. having travelled about <181 &> 16 miles[.] Luke Johnson gave T. Bullock a bunch of 12 rattles, taken from a Snake which he shot yesterday afternoon, measuring about 4 feet in length, & several inches in circumference, the Rattle Snake was preparing for a Spring when Luke so unceremoniously prevented him—the oil was taken out, rubbed on Zebedee Coltrin's Black Leg, which did it a great deal of good. Prests. Young & Kimball with several others rode on horseback, ahead in order to pick the best Road, as usual—and altho' making an entire new road, the road was very dusty. I can say the most dusty day we have had.
Thursday 29. The Camp arose at the sound of the horn, to hitch up our teams, & remove to where we could get better feed; at Sunrise started on our journey, & travelled a couple of miles when we halted to feed our Cattle on the Green grass. a beautiful morning. South West Wind. many bunches of the Prickly Pear growing about this place. after staying about an hour, we travelled again about two miles when the Camp crossed Wood Creek—Prest. Young directing the crossing. There saw fruit trees in bloom, & Cotton Wood & other trees in leaf[.] continued our journey over a prairie covered with dry grass—saw a natural amphitheatre & an Antelope. came to a camp on Green grass at 10 mins past 1, where we staid an hour—on resuming our journey, some of the brethren put fire to the dry grass in several places to burn it, that those who follow after may have Green grass for their cattle. There were showers on our right & left, & yet none with us—in the afternoon the Wind moved round to the North which then blew pretty boisterous. the Camps came to a halt about 6 P.M. on the banks of the River Platte; where we found a plentiful supply of water. the Cotton Wood & other trees being in leaf. [blank space] travelled 20 miles
Friday 30 Camp arose at the sound of the horn—finding a cold North Wind but clear[.] attended to Cattle, hitched up & started at ¼ to 9[.] travelling over an uneven Prairie & with little grass on it, came to a halt at noon on a clear little Stream, which, with having by far the best grass on its banks, may be truly called "Grass Creek"; it is pretty well supplied with Water Cresses, which are the first I have seen in this Country. a gravel bottom makes it about as pretty a place to camp, as any we have had. the Hunters report having seen the tracks of Buffalo this morning. the Camp started again about 1½ P.M. travelling in a Westerly direction over a more broken Country[.] a very Strong North Wind blowing, & being dark, caused the Camp to halt for the night under a small Bluff without either Wood or Water. the brethren dug 3 Wells and procured a dark colored water for the Cattle. dug small trenches, used Willows & Buffalo Dung for fuel. one of the trenches most useful in this Shape [entitled diagram] the fuel burnt well in these shaped holes. at Luke Johnson's fire I saw a Buffalo Skull made for a Chimney. the smoke coming out at two holes between the horns, combined the useful & ludicrous—here were found tracks, indicating that Buffalo, have passed very lately, also Calves tracks. Prest. Young gave liberty for the brethren to have a dance & enjoy themselves, as they had neither wood to warm, nor good water to drink; which they improved to their satisfaction, when they had warmed themselves, the brethren retired to bed [blank space to margin][.] 16 miles
Saturday 1st commenced with a very cold morning. the wind blowing from the North. S. Markham being sick, John Pack directed the Camp to go by Tens, the Captains of Companies leading. started by 8½ A.M. about 7[.] saw three Buffalos, to our right, on the Bluff; where Luke Johnson[,] O.P. Rockwell & Tom Brown started in pursuit of them—the Camp continued their journey until ½ past 8 when they again camped on the bank of the Platte River—at the same time saw a herd of Buffalo about 6 miles ahead on the side of the Bluffs. Willard Richards counted 65. William Clayton counted 72, & Orson Pratt 74 by the assistance of their Telescopes[.] after refreshing our Cattle—at 10¾ Camp started again, at noon crossed the mouth of a Slough, or rather the mouth of a Creek where the Water had sunk into the Earth. considerable quantity of Willows growing on the sides; immediately afterwards Johnson & Rockwell returned, reporting that Johnson had shot one thro' the Spine, but it escaped into the herd, & owing to the rugged country they were unable to follow it. about 1 saw another herd of Buffalo to the West of us, grazing at the foot of the hill; when the Camp arrived opposite the herd, a halt was called, when 11 hunters mounted their horses & got to the Eastward of them. at the same time one of the brethren shot at an Antelope, when a dog run it straight among the herd of Buffalo, which alarmed them, and away they went, raising a cloud of dust behind them, running along the side of the hill in a Westerly direction—then galloped the hunters down, & along the hill in full chase; all enveloped in one cloud of dust—H.C. Kimball then started from the Camp, joined the hunters, & shot down one of the Cows previously wounded; now was a time of great excitement—every glass was in operation to see the chase, & every man was intensely anxious for the success of our raw hunters; this being their first chase—. still the Buffalo fly. still the hunters are in their midst, & the dust rises in clouds above them—when some of the Buffalo rise the hill—three are detached from the herd, which take to the plains. these are headed by one of the brethren, one stops suddenly, then pursues its course, followed by two hunters, who finally succeed in saving one of them. the chase on the side of the hill, ceased about 4. the hunters returning to the camp about 5—having killed & secured One Bull, Three Cows & Six Calves—being a good days work for a set of inexperienced hunters—the entire Camp were very glad & felt thankful to our Heavenly Father for a supply of food, which came at a very acceptable time, many being without meat. the Camp halted for the night about 6½ P.M. & unloaded several teams to go & fetch in the meat. this day many Flocks of geese were seen. & we travelled thro a large "Prairie Dog Town", suppose about 3 or 4 miles long. & could not see the width of it. one of the brethren succeeded in securing one of these timid animals.
I felt very sick—the severe cold Weather afflicted me much—[blank space] 15 miles[.] attended to the cattle, went to bed without supper, afterwards got some Composition. the Wagons returned with the Buffalo meat which was cut up into portions, to be divided amongst the several Tens
Sunday 2 The North Wind still continued, cold, the Sky clear—another Buffalo Calf was killed last night. it approached very near the camp & one of the Guard killed it. bro. Joseph Hancock returned to camp this morning, reporting that he had killed & secured one Cow. some Wolves smelling the blood came to get some of it. one coming too near Hancock to be social, he shot it. after fencing it in with Stakes he started for the Camp but could not find it. he lay down on the Prairie for the night—& came in this morning; all the brethren glad to see him safe—a Wagon was sent for the Cow. this is the 12th killed. the meat being divided & distributed. the Camp was enlivened by the appearance of the Shambles—the meat was cut up in strips & part dried over the fire to preserve it for future use. the hides were cut up into ropes & thongs. & stretched between Stakes. the hair on the Bulls head was about a foot long & the hide about 1 inch thick. O.P. Rockwell had had fired a ball at his head, which only made him shake it once or twice. on examination after he was killed, it was found that the outer skin was broken & that was all—which is a convincing proof, that to fire at the head of a Buffalo is only to waste Powder & Ball. about 11 Prest. Young & several others went to search out another & better Camping place—returned about 1. at ½ past 2 the teams were all hitched up & started. crossed a ravine, then thro' another Prairie Dog Town. travelled 2 miles & camped at the mouth of a small Creek as it emptied into the Platte River, here we have plenty of good water & feed for cattle—the Sky Cloudy—Prairie set on fire by the Indians within two miles a head of us. this morning one of the Hunters saw a Buffalo, he was within 8 rods of it, but did not shoot it—because Prest Young gave orders not to shoot on the Sabbath day.
Monday 3 As I arose up at break of day, saw three Buffalo pass the camp, on their way to the Bluffs—sharp frost in the night. the sun arose with a gentle breeze from the West[.] about 7 a very large Wolf passed the camp—Orders were given for 20 men to go out on the still hunt—& 15 to go & search out a road & another Camping place, while some were appointed to watch the cattle; & all the rest were ordered to stay in Camp—the Cattle were driven out, the Sentries placed. the hunters & others started on their journey, while the remainder attended to washing, drying meat, two Blacksmiths fixed their bellows & Anvils, & repaired Wagons &c Prests. Young & Richards in council in Drs. Wagon. the Heavens began to be very cloudy, and threaten like rain, which came over the camp at ½ past 12 in a gentle shower. at 2.20 the Exploring Company returned & reported that about 10 or 12 miles off—a drove of Antelope galloped by when Brother Empy galloped round to head them, one took towards the river, <& looked down a Ravine> Empey while in hot pursuit, turned his head in the same direction, & saw a war party of Indians, about 2 or 300 in number; some mounted on their horses, the remainder ready to mount their horses—he immediately wheeled his horse, galloped to the brethren, who then retraced their steps to the Camp—on their arrival & making known their report; Prest. Young called the men together, ordered them to gather up all their horses & go to the hunters; that they may return to the Camp in safety—which was done. the hunters returned about sunset having shot 2 Calves, 2 Antelopes, 1 Wolf. Hark Lay shot a Prairie Dog, given to T[homas[.] B[ullock]. West wind. in consequence of seeing the Indians—the Cannon was fired about 9 o'clock, to warn them we were prepared—[blank space] West Wind.
Tuesday 4. The Cannon was fired again at 4 oclock which awoke the entire camp—on rising found the Frost had whitened the grass, also a dew fell at sunrise which made Wet Shoes—a gentle breeze from the South West—several horses straying away, some horsemen had a gallop to bring them back. at ½ past 7 the brethren were called together, when James Case, Stephen Markham , William Carter, Marcuss B. Thorpe, Jack Reddin[g], Carlos Murray, Albert Carrington, John Y. Green, Alva Hanks, & Hark Lay volunteered to be the 6th Co. of Ten for night Guard; & Green Flake & Oscar Crosby to fill the place of John H. Tibbets [Tippets] in 5th Ten, &c
afterwards Prest. Young counselled the brethren not to leave the camp 20 rods, without orders from their Captains. he stated that this Camp had travelled to this place, with the best of feelings, & told them all they had to do, was to find out what was right, & then do it—no man feels as he should do, unless he feels that we are as one family. & feels for his brethren, as for himself. We are all Stewards over the property committed to us, & I am to see that my property does not go to waste, but convert it to a good use. We are not to indulge a man in Idleness, for there are some men who would not lift a finger, or do a chore between this place & the Rocky Mountains, if other men would do their work for them—have a prudent, industrious Spirit & you will do. I see the hand of Providence in our journey to this place, that no man has been hurt. mind my Word for it, if the brethren will continue to straggle away from the Camp, some of you, if not killed, will be stript, & robbed, & come naked to the Camp, or be kept prisoners by the Indians—you are sure to be ill used if not killed—let every man have his guns & pistols in perfect order—and the Tens all keep together—is this right? (all said right)—the historians & Clerks have been so busy, that I have not yet seen a copy of the rules of the camp. have them read at least on Sundays—now I want you all to recollect. don't leave the camp without instructions from your Captains. the Pawnees would steal all our horses, & use us up if they could. I want the Cannon to go without the box. put the box on another wagon & divide the lead in other Wagons—the meeting then separated. W. Richards wrote on a board instructions for the next Camp—saw many Antelopes, & several Indians at 20 min: past 9 started across the Creek - & there halted until the Cannon was put in condition & brought over—when the camp moved off by Platoons. the 1st Company First, or all abreast. the 2nd &c & so thro'out—the Cannon bringing up the rear. when all the camp was in order; Prest. Young called out attention the camp of Israel. First Company forward—& away they went in close column regimental style. A Camp was seen on the opporite side of the River at noon we were called to a halt, Charles Beaumont having come over, & kindly offered to take letters: when Prest. Young ordered directions written to the Saints at Winter Quarters, which Prest. Richards wrote, & T.B. copied—signed by Young & Richards & directed to Mr. John Smith, or Alpheus Cutler—Winter Quarters <(copy filed)>—I also enclosed a note to my Wife—made up a mail of 54 letters to Winter Quarters. & sent by Mr. Beaumont, who was going to Council Bluffs—Bread, Meat, Sugar & Coffee was given to him, he was very thankful, said he would not take 20 dollars for his presents, & frequently begged not to be over loaded—as he had got enough. Brothers Woolsey, Brown & Pack went with him over the River to see the other traders; the Camp continued their journey, over a burnt prairie, crossing a Slough where the Cattle were watered and at ½ past 3 made a halt, where there was a little grass, several Antelopes seen in the distance. Col. Markham assisted several companies of the brethren in military tactics. afterwards Prest. Young called the brethren together, to hear report of Brown, Pack, & Woolsey. Brown reported that Poppa said the grass was good on the South side. & firing the prairies on the North side. if we continue on the North side we must ferry the North Fork. Brown has a knowledge of the road on the South side to within 12 miles of Fort Laramie. we can go on the North side as far as Fort Laramie, but the Black Hills stop progress on North side. Prest. Young motioned that we continue our journey on the North side, seconded & carried. he said if we crossed the River here, in order to get good feed for ourselves, when the next company comes, it will be high water, they could not cross & would feel bad about it.
At 10 min to 6 we started again, saw a Buffalo flounder in the River; many Snipes & Geese. travelled over a burnt prairie, having a South wind, & halted on the banks of a creek at 7.15 having travelled about 11 miles—fine evening.
Wednesday 5 on rising in the morning, saw one of the Drs. Cattle loose, which was fetched up. Saw a band of Buffalo in the West. a cool but pleasant morning. gentle breeze from the S.W. at ½ past 7 the Camp started, crossed the creek, travelled over a burnt prairie, cross several Sloughs, & halt at ½ past 11 on a part of the prairie only partially burnt. opposite Bradys Island—a very strong wind blowing from the South—two Buffalo Bulls being a short distance from the camp. Capt. Grover & I went to look at them in their native wilderness. they allowed us to approach to within 40 or 50 rods, when they walked off. at 5 minutes past 1 started again; when a band of Buffalo being ahead, the hunters gave chase, & succeeded in securing 1 Cow, & 5 Calves dead & Prest. Kimball, & O. P. Rockwell Succeeded in capturing a fine Bull Calf alive, which will be taken to the mountains—continued our route until we came to the Prairie, that was burning like a roaring furnace. Prests. Young & Kimball thought it was wisdom to turn back a mile, to Camp. & in the morning we can pursue our journey early: the teams then turned round & the wind blew the ashes of the burnt grass in all directions, which soon caused us to look like Sweeps, however by washing, after our halt, we were enabled to discern each other again. travelled about 13 miles. & 1 mile back again. fine day.
Thursday 6 A shower of rain fell about 4 A.M. which damped the grass & partly extinguished the fire. the wind also changed into the West. Our camp started about 5—passed thro' between the fires. once more getting on the grass, & a pleasant morning—after travelling about 3 miles, came in sight of a large herd of Buffalo, I had a shot at an Antelope which brother [blank space] secured & brought to Camp. Halt to feed a little before 7. in about an hour again start over dry grass—seeing many Antelopes & about 10 or 15,000 Buffalo. a Calf followed Luke Johnson into camp, & at noon halt it was placed in sight of the mother, by order of Prest Young—that the mother might get it. but George Brown & another brother very foolishly went in sight, close to the old Cow, when she started off & left it. the Calf was afterwards seen caught by a Wolf & killed. at ½ past 1 Camp again move, seeing immense droves of Buffalo—7 Buffalo run thro' the midst of the Camp, in the evening, we came to a Cow lying down & tired[.] many of the brethren went up & touched her, she had a very wild eye, but had not strength to get away. I touched her back. the brethren got her up several times & she continued to lie down, when Prest. Young told them to come away & leave her alone[.] the South side of the River is very Green, & much better grass than on the North side, but we had rather go a little slower & continue making a new road on the North side for the future use of the Saints—Pleasant day—travel about 9 miles[.] Camp opposite an Island about ½ past 6—hearing Wolves & seeing Antelopes.
Friday 7 Arose at dawn of day, herded Cattle, & on Guard until 10—Cold West Wind. when I was relieved Guard by G.A. Smith, he reported there had been a meeting about the Cannon when Prest. Young had occasion to talk pretty severe to Erastus Snow—& requested that not more than one man should ride on the Cannon—instead of half a dozen. Prest. Richards reported ¼ to 9[.] the brethren assembled at Head Quarters—Prest Young said there were horses wanted to draw the Cannon. I have procured a Boat & am taking it along for the benefit of the camp, & have furnished most of the horses for the Cannon, until my teams [are] so worn down that I have need of them all, & I want the brethren to feel a common interest, in the welfare pertaining to the whole; & those who have horses that they can spare, to put them in to draw the Cannon—when we left Winter Quarters there were four horses attached to the Cannon, & I supposed that the Teams had been fitted up according to my instructions & were going thro' the Journey, but the horses have been since taken away & it has fallen on my hand. & I want the brethren to furnish some horses to draw the Cannon. Col. Markham will put on a driver that will not let the men ride on it & kill the horses.
Let the Buffalo & game alone & kill no more till we need it. I feel we shall want for Game if we don't take this course—& the Camp voted unanimously that they would kill no more Game until they needed it to eat. [blank space] I want to know if the Camp will take care of the Cows, or whether every man shall take care of his own; or what they intend to do about it. Yesterday there was no one with the Cows. & they started twice to go to the Buffalo & I had to run my horse to bring them back. in doing which I lost a good telescope. I did not know then that Erastus Snow was the drover, for that time if I had, I should have known that he would not go out of his road one rod, he is so lazy. I suspect some of the boys will get caught by a Buffalo on the Prairie & get badly hurt if not killed, before the brethren will stop going after them. don't dare the Buffalo, but let them alone; if the Buffalo should come in the night & scare our Cattle, & they brake loose & run: they will follow the Buffalo & we shall lose them in all probability, the brethern must guard against this thing. Erastus Snow s[ai]d that he furnished some teams for the Cannon, had a team of his own to drive, but he had no Cow in the herd. that after this, men might drive their own Cows for all [of] him. & if any man could put a charge of laziness upon him, or any thing else wherein he had not done his duty, they might do it & welcome; & if I can't throw it off I will bear it. Prest. Young then said brother Snow was you to drive the Cattle yesterday—Snow replied, yes, I volunteered to do it. the Camp voted unanimously that Erastus Snow was not in the line of his duty in not taking care of the cows. Prest. Young sd I will warrant the best man in Camp that undertakes to stick up his [.i.] against the Authorities that he will slide off like Warren Parish & Sylvester Smith. Brother Snow apologized
at ¼ to 11 the Camp started on their journey. Dr. leaving another board of directions for further emigrants, we were in sight of Buffalo & continued in sight all day—at 10 min past 1 a band had a race around the Camp. first 7 then 4 & then 4—exactly as if racing for Sweepstakes for a considerable amount—but after they had run round the Camp, within 15 or 20 rods of it, seeing it they halted to look at us with astonishment. the Camp had made a halt to see the end of their gambolling—at the same time some of the brethren caught another Calf but let it go again. Green Flake walked up to within two rods of a fine Buck Antelope, before the Buck got up. I wondered why he did not kill it. but the meeting held this morning was a sufficient reason for not killing it. about 1 the Camp came in view of thousands upon thousands after that, of the Lord's Cattle, yea the Cattle on a thousand hills as the Scriptures speak of. surely the Fat Bulls of Bashan are here. at 3 the Camp halted close to an Island, where we found pretty good feed for the Cattle. having travelled about 7 miles—the evening was very dull, cold & chilly & had a slight sprinkling of rain. Wind from N.W.
Saturday 8 Wind in the North West, very pleasant & clear. the Cattle grazed—the brethren worked & attended to their business & duties. I was on Guard until ½ past 8. one of the brethren caught a young Hare alive & brought it into Camp. after exhibiting it to the brethren it was again allowed its liberty. at 9 oclock the Camp started thro' a prairie of deep dry grass for several miles. on the South side of the River the Buffalo were in one dense mass, several miles in length, covering the plain & marching towards the mountains. many of the brethren expressed their thankfulness that we were on the North side of the River, out of the midst of such an immense drove—but in a short time the Camp turned a sudden round of a hill, & there were the thousands & thousands of Buffalo ahead of us, marching directly in our Path, & going the same way as the Camp. There were such a mass of living blackness that the Van Guard could not see the Prairie beyond them. when the Van got up to them they marshaled themselves into one immense Regiment—& had to kill a young Cow (of course the best ) that the report might scare them away & allow the Camp a passage thro'. at 5 min: to 1 the Camp halted to feed. between 2 & 3 William A. Smoot's horses ran away for the 2nd time this week, thro' negligence. Prests. Young & Kimball rode out. & Thomas Grover & John Brown put their horses full speed, to overtake them. they had run more than a mile in the midst of a large band of Buffalo, before Grover & Brown could overtake them. they succeeded in recapturing the horses & bringing them & bringing them safe back to Camp. Smoot had been told to hobble his horses by one of the brethren, or they would run away when Smoot replied[,] "dam[n] you its none of your business if they do go"—about ½ past 3 the Camp was again in motion & went over a Country where the Grass was all eat up by the Buffalo. & came to a halt at the foot of a Sand hill—on the brink of a Precipice of Sand to the River. when ½ past 5 travelled about 12 miles. the Bluffs here rise in a broken sharp pointed ridge with a very uneven ascent. scarce any grass & not a Tree or Shrub on the banks. In the small Islands there are some small Trees—just coming into leaf—the South side of the River—the Bluffs on the South side of the River are getting very precipitous & broken. they appear about three miles from the River. the plains being covered with Buffalo. about ¼ to 7 the Camp was all in circle for the night. Cold Wind from the East.
Sunday 9 Clear morning accompanied with a Cold South East Wind. Attended to Cattle. at 10 min: past 8 the Camp start from this bare place, travel over a Sandy ridge. descend to the River bottom, where Luke Johnson, Edmund Ellsworth & 2 others caught a four year old Buffalo Bull—& took him to the River to Water him. Edm[ond] Ellsworth driver & guided by the Tail by Johnson. after watering him, let him go, as he was not fat enough to kill. the Camp travelled 4 miles & camped on the bank of the River where was some dry grass, & the Wood on the Island easy to procure—Prest. Richards dictated a letter to Porter Dowdle Prest. of Saints at Pueblo & I copied same. when the Twelve met with Woolsey, Tibbets, & Stevens & after a short conversation it was agreed they would continue with the Camp to Fort Laramie. ½ past 3 the brethren assembled round the Revenue Cutter, opened by singing "Come all ye Sons of Zion" Prayer by Amasa Lyman. W. Woodruff, Pratt, Lyman & Benson spoke (see minutes on file) afterwards T. Bullock read the laws regulating the Camp. & benediction by W Woodruff. afterwards I went within 20 rods of 4 Buffalo Bulls to look at them. did not appear very wild. made out an Epitome of this Journal for the benefit of the Saints who follow after (on file)
Monday 10 Very cold wind in the night—from West. made out a copy of the Epitome also the laws regulating the Pioneer Camp. for the benefit & comfort of the Saints who follow after; read same to Prest. Young, who said, "that's Scripture"—Prest Richards wrote a few words in addition, then sealed it up & enclosed it in a box, which was then attached to a twelve foot pole. on the outside was written in Red Chalk "open this & you will find a letter" on the reverse "look in this—316 miles from Winter Quarters—bound Westward—Pioneers". on the Post "Platte Post Office"—close by the side of the post was left a Curriers Shop—the letter was directed to C.C. Rich—at 9 o'clock the Camp start—2nd Co of 1st Divn. leading—went over an uneven prairie, bare of grass, then crossed a small Creek & came in the midst of an abundance of dry grass, & a good size—when a Wild horse passed thro' our Camp. Prest. Kimball & Porter Rockwell went in pursuit but were unable to run him down. at noon the Camp halted to refresh teams & tarried until ¼ to 2 when we left, set fire to the Prairies, but the next Company may have some Green grass for their Cattle—crossed a couple of Sloughs & Camp at ½ past 4—because the oxen in Prest Young's Wagon gave out. travelled about 10 miles—this is a pretty camping place. the trees on the Island being in leaf—the grass just springing gives a pleasing appearance—the Bluffs on the South side are getting sharp & rugged in appearance & destitute of vegetation. a fine young Buffalo killed & divided. also two Deer killed, one was run down by Trip, a dog belonging to Prest. Richards, which was killed by P.H. Young & J.S. Higbee. a N.W. wind—gentle—but cool. I was on guard from the time of halting to ½ past 7 when I was relieved by Dr. Richards.
Tuesday 11 on arising found South breeze—pleasant—a dew on the grass. while attending the Cattle some of the brethren dug out a den of Wolves. there were 4 fine Cubs in it—which was brought out alive, but afterwards killed, to make Caps. Dr. Richards found a Buffalo horn filled with a Hornet's nest and brought it to Camp. he afterwards rode to the Island, with an Axe, cut off a patch of bark on a large tree & wrote the inscription for the benefit of the Saints who follow after—brought up the Cattle & at ½ past 9 start on our journey over the prairie with a short sprinkling of Grass upon it—pass several Islands witih Cedar & other Trees on them; halt on the brink of the River by a Steep Sand Precipice in order to Water the Cattle & rest a short while—when we continued our journey, [.orned] the Bluffs. turning towards the North Fork, over a Sand Road. & Camped on the Prairie without Wood or Water: at 3 o clock, but with much better grass for the Cattle than we have seen this past week. the brethren dig several Wells & get good Water. A. Lyman found a Skull, where could be seen the Arrow Shot, the blow of the Tomahawk & the Scalping Knife marks, which A.P. Rockwood exhibited to the Camp. Cloudy evening. South West Wind. I attended cattle & [T..loring] travelled about 9 miles.
Professor Orson Pratt took an observation at noon & reports Lat. 41° 7 m[in] 44 sec N. Barometer stood at 27-125[.] Attached Thermometer 71°[.] Detached thermometer 70°[.] Clear Sky. Moderate South Wind.
Wednesday 12 at 5 A.M. Barometer stood at 27.136. Attached Therm 44°[.] Detached therm: 41°[.] Clear Sky. South Wind. Cattle grazed until 9 o'clock when the Camp started, going over a dark colored soil, with many patches of Saline deposit, more so than any place we have seen. after about two miles came to Sandy ground again. Watered the Cattle again, & proceeded on our journey. at ½ past 1 Camp halted opposite three small Islands on the North Fork of Platte River, where we found a pretty good sprinkling of Grass for the Cattle—also a large nest in a tree, measuring about 27 inches in Circumference inside rim—which would fill a bushel basket outside. ¼ past 3 Luke Johnson & Phinehas H. Young returned from shooting, bringing the news of Indians being in the Neighborhood—they having counted 100 large Buffalos dead & Skinned—some having the Sinews cut out of the Flesh, others having had the thigh bones cut out, & broken for the sake of the marrow, & the Flesh left to rot. they left off counting at 100. also saw a great number of dead Calves Skinned. a great waste of animal life. also saw Pony trails & Indian & children's tracks without number. these signs have been made very recently. at ½ past 3 the Camp start again, cross two Creeks and Camp at 20 min: after 5. opposite several small Islands. finding a pretty good Sprinkling of Grass—nothing but Willows on the Islands. travelled 12 miles, according to William Clayton's Roadometer, attached this morning. the valley thro' which we have this day travelled, may aptly be called, the Valley of Dry Bones from the immense number of Bleached Buffalo Bones. a young Buffalo killed & brought into Camp. Lightning in the North West. Dark Clouds.
Thursday 13 Very Cold Wind all night. Horn was blown before 4 a.m. got up. Cold & raw. Cattle being loose have gone to graze. I then went up & travelled thro' the remains of a Sioux Town. it is supposed there were 4 or 500 Lodges—meat, remnants of Buffalo Skins[,] Mocassins, Halters &c were left behind: as if they had been recruiting with new, & casting away the old. found a pair of Mocassins in pretty good condition.
at ½ past 8 I assisted gathering up the Cattle. at 9 the Camp start with a North East Wind. Cross the Creek, travel over a loamy soil. at 11 A.M. halt to feed the Cattle by the side of a Slough. start again at about ¼ to 1 crossing the Slough, & in some places uneven road, with but little grass. until we came to a wide River, full of Quicksand. three Wagons stick, but by doubling teams & the brethren assisting, they were pulled thro' with a little delay, & wetting themselves.—the Camp was formed in nearly a Semi Circle at 20 min: to 4. Cattle turned loose upon pretty good feed, after travelling 10¾ miles by brother Clayton's Roadometer—Prests. Young & Kimball rode ahead & searched out a road for the Camp to go over the Bluff, tomorrow morning. four of the hunters went in pursuit of a band of 10 Buffalo, but they getting the scent, escaped from the hunters.
N.B. altho' this is a river about 10 rods wide, there is no mark on the maps showing that such a river flows.
In picking up Buffalo Dung this morning, I discovered a very pretty Green snake, which I played with, on the end of a thin Stick. I was afterwards told, that it was one of the most poisonous of Snakes.
Friday 14 Thundering in the distance. slight rain between 5 & 6. dull, cold: cloudy morning. several bands of Bufalo running from West to East. brother Higbee reported having seen 32 Indian Poneys over the West ridge of hills. about 7 a thunder storm coming on. the horn was blown to fetch in the Cattle. I got nearly wet thro'—all took to their Wagons for shelter until it was over. when the Shower subsided, the horn was blown again to gather up the Cattle that had strayed away. went out again, hitched up, and started about 10 o'clock, during the rain. Camp went round a hill, passing through a vale, Wild Sage seen on our route, also the Prickly Pear, turned round towards the River, going between the ridges, over a Sandy Road, & camped on the other side of the hill, at ¼ after 1 to refresh our teams for an hour, by the side of a pool. here were seen a curious grass. ring streaked, alternate yellow & Green. & also a deep blue grass. there were many shells of mud Turtles scattered about. we again continued our route—dragging thro' some very heavay Sand spots. & camped at ¼ after 4. after waiting about an hour, the Camp began to form for the night, intending to make an Eschalon, but thro' a little mistake, they formed the figure of, as near as possible, Ursa Major, or the Great Bear. travelled 8¾[.] miles the hunters kill An Antelopes, & a Badger. Prest. Richards gave me a Pen Knife. Wind changed from West in the morning, to South East in the evening. the 32 Indian Poneys as reported this morning—were our own horses, that a few of the brethren had taken over the hill to graze—Saw a new moon
Saturday 15 Rodney Badger having reported, that while on Guard, he saw something moving. watched it for some time, and seeing it move quicker towards a Span of Mules, that were chained together, close by; the mules pricked up their ears & snorted, he then fired, when a man jumped up & ran away. Colonels Markham, & Rockwood immediately called up those brethren, who had horses or mules, to see that they were fastened inside the Circles, which was done. The Wind blew cold from the North West, heavy clouds covering the Sky. I attended to the Cattle. a Cold rain commenced about 8 o'clock. the teams were fetched up. and started at 10 min: to 9 taking a Winding Course through a Mountain of Sand, which was hard pulling for the oxen. where we descended from it, was steeper than most house roofs, and went with almost a jump. here we found the most grass of any place this journey, halted the Wagons, & turned the cattle out to graze at 10 min: to 10, the rain falling all the while. staid until 20 min: after 12 when it ceased raining & the Camp again pursued its journey. over the bottom, arriving at a Camping ground at 20 min: after 4. we had to Camp here, because the Explorers report, that the Buffalo have eat up all the grass ahead. the brethren dig several wells, from 3 to 4 feet deep & procure water. many Buffalo seen. Cloudy, Wind from the North, cold. The Buffalo killed last night, was divided into 14 Portions & distributed before the Camp started this morning.
another Buffalo killed and brought into Camp this evening[.] 7 miles
Sunday 16 At Cock Crow, the Horn blew, arose, cold morning but pleasant. Wind in the North, Clear Sky. Ice seen in several places—an Antelope killed this A.M. This day was a day of purifying, nearly all the brethren were engaged in washing[.] in afternoon rather cloudy. at 4 P.M. a Band of Buffalo being seen coming from the Bluffs, among the horses, Eric Glines went out to drive them away, & shot a fat one, he afterwards shot three successive times at him—after he was Skinned it was discovered that the first ball had passed thro' the heart, the ball falling inside the bag. while the brethren were skin[n]ing him; the time for meeting had come; I having seen him, being a fine old bull, weighing about 800 lbs[.] the hair on his forehead was about a foot long and very shaggy—then returned to Camp & found Stephen Markham exhorting the brethren to their duty; followed by A. P. Rockwood on the same subject. then Elder Kimball got into the Boat & notified that he had travelled in many Companies; that he was in the Zion's Camp that went up to Missouri in 1834. but he never was in a Camp, a company that behaved themselves better than this Camp. these Pioneers were like Clay in the hands of the Potter; they could be made into any thing that the Potter wanted to make of them; and said that the Lord was blessing us, and would bless us on this journey; that His Angels went before us, & guided & directed us. after he had finished I read the laws to regulate the Camp, afterwards brothers Markham & Rockwood made a few remarks on them; & the congregation was dismissed by brother Rockwood giving the benediction—the Cattle were then brought to the Camp and tied for the night.
Monday 17 Horn blew at day break. arose, loosed the Cattle; . copied the Extracts from Journal, for the benefit and comfort of the Saints that follow, Appleton Harmon made a letter box, Elder Richards made up the mail & directed it to "C.C. Rich & Comp[an]y" on the reverse "North Fork Letter Box." May 17.1847. ½ past 7 A.M." & fixed it in the ground at which time the Camp again resumed their journey, over a black loamy soil, until we came to the Bluffs of Sand, crossed "Spring Creek" named by Prest. Young. at the crossing place, the brethren had graded both sides of the Ravine, thro' which it ran. on ascending the West side of it, I gathered a bouquet of Sweet smelling flowers, for Prest. Richards. went thro' a vale round the Bluffs, in which were several deep ravines, & holes. & descended by a couple of Gates or steep jumping places; came to the bottom where was good grass & clear water, watered the Cattle, & continued our journey over an uneven bottom until 20 min to 12 when the Camp halted. & refreshed teams. warm day—Clear Sky—Roswell Stevens caught a young Fawn, which Lorenzo Young will endeavor to rear. a horse belonging to Phinehas H. Young got mired, the brethren got ropes, and after some difficulty, they got him out. the Cattle had good grass at this place—saw a large Water Snake. at 20 min: to 2 the Camp again pursued their journey, crossing two or three Creeks, and marshy places. at 20 min: to 4 the Camp halted to divide 2 Buffalo & an Antelope—& send on the Revenue Cutter to bring in more Buffalo—Prest Young, Kimball & others went on ahead to explore a road, for the Camp—the Cattle were turned loose to eat. the meat was skinned & divided. and at 25 min: to 5 the Camp started again, went under the foot of the Bluffs, crossing several Water courses—& mud holes, pulling thro' two Sand hills. the rest of the journey over a Black Sand surface, and halt at 10 min: to 6 in a Circle; about a mile from the River, having travelled 12¾ miles—a Warm afternoon, clear Sky—at our Camping place, we found plenty of good grass for feed & some Water about a ¼ of a mile North of the Camp. the brethren dig 3 Wells, & get excellent Water at 4 feet deep—the Soil is rich for about two feet, then a hard pan, (white) in some places, & gravel in others. at Sundown the Revenue Cutter brought in another Buffalo & Antelope.
Tuesday 18 a beautiful morning, and Clear Sky. the Cattle were grazing and did well.
I was informed that Prest. Young called the Captains together about ½ past 7 (I was on guard) & reproved all the brethren who had been wasting their shot & Powder, & reproved the horsemen for wasting the strength of their horses, without benefitting the Camp—some had been murmuring about their meat. while at the same time a great deal had been wasted—& ordered that no more game be killed until it was needed.
at 25 min: past 8 the Camp continued its line of march, going towards the River. crossed two small Creeks, travelled over a dark colored Soil, with a short distance of a Sand ridge; on the South side of the River, the Bluffs come close to the River, and were dotted with Pine trees and Cedars. the River then crosses over to the North Bluffs, and we halted for noon near the Bluffs—. about 11 oclock Clouds began to gather, & about ¼ to 12 Showers were seen to fall ahead of us, moving from SW to NE abt at noon thundering with light showers—while crossing a Shallow Creek <(opposite Cedar Bluffs)> this morning[.] Prest. Young rode a short distance up it on horseback, heard a snake's rattle, his horse stept a little on one side. Brother Thomas Woolsey following on foot, the Snake made a jump at him, and reached to within a few inches of his foot. Brother Young then told brother Higbee to fire, which he did, cutting off the Snake's head—it measured about 4½ feet & had on seven rattles, and one had fallen off. he then kicked the Snake into the Creek; when Prest Young named it "Rattle Snake Creek"—after the Cattle had grazed about an hour, they were hitched up, & the Camp again pursued its journey. by the side of the River, & then again stearing in the direction of the Bluffs—several Buffalos seen each side of the River—& a Stork wading in the River near some small Islands. the Camp crossed over, and halted for the night at ¼ to 6 on the junction of two small Creeks of beautiful Water, having travelled 15¾ miles. immediately afterwards Orson Pratt & William Clayton met in Dr.Richards Wagon, and a Consultation took place about delineating the Pioneer Road on the Topographical map sent by Col[one]l. Kane to Prest. Young when it was decided that brother Clayton should get Professor Pratt's observations that he had taken; & then the course of the Road by brother Clayton's measurements showing the Bluffs, & each Creek as we found them, in order; also affix the name that should be given to the different Creeks, & prominent places. Professor Pratt reports that at noon, by an observation of the Sun, we were in Latitude 41° 13' 44" North. & brother Clayton reports that we are now <333 miles from W.Q. in Junction> 69½ miles from the junction of the North and South Forks—according to measurement by his Roadometer.
the Cattle were gathered up at dusk, & immediately the brethren were called together to the centre of the ring & were addressed by Col[one]ls Markham & Rockwood in order to get the brethren to do as they would be done by, & put away the selfish principle of bringing up his own Cattle, & leaving his brother's horse or ox, for fear of walking ten rods, to save his brother one, two, or three miles journey after it—when it was unanimously voted that from this time the brethren would drive in all the Cattle and horses at one time, and it was also voted that four out of each ten, should go at the Sound of the Horn for that purpose. Prest. Young then stated that the Captains of Tens ought not to leave their Companies, without appointing a man to act in his absence. & that they must travel by Companies. & then dismissed the brethren telling them to go and behave themselves—
Wednesday 19 rain about midnight—till morning—horn was blown at ½ past 4 to arise[.] found a dark cloudy morning—Easterly wind—the grass very wet; not being much fee[d.] the Cattle were gathered up and at ¼ to 6 started iggledy piggledy, or in no order—thro' tall dried grass, until 25 min: past 6 when the Camp halted near several sm[all] Lakes and Streams of Clear Water; some places were marshy—many ducks abou[nd] on the ponds & on the South side of the River, several Trees, & very Green Shrub[s] are growing luxuriantly—the Explorers go to search out a Road thro' the Bluffs[.] after their return—the Cattle again gathered, in a shower of rain, and at 10 min: to 9 start over a Sand plain, at ¼ to 10 cross "Wolf Creek" in two places <(it was called Wolf Creek from the circumstance of several Wolves chasing Elder Kimball while searching out a road for the Camp)> and commence ascending the Mountains, which was the most difficult of any to cross over—pass a circuitous route thro' it—and again descend to the bottoms, where the Camp crossed another Creek—found some grass—and at 11 min: to 11 halt; & turn out Cattle to graze—the rain continuing all the time—at 3 o'clock the rain ceased, when the Cattle were again hitched up, & at 3 o'clock the Camp was again under way, in order to find good feed. at ¼ past 4 halted for the night on the bank of the River—& a Creek running at our rear—then made a tracing of Fremont's route, & the North Fork, from the Junction to beyond Fort Laramie—travelled 8 miles. Swallows flying.
Dr.Richards read Game of Chess with Buonapart [Bonaparte] to B. Young—H.C. Kimball, A. Lyman, W. Woodruff & E. T. Benson in Drs. Wagaon, at dark.
Thursday 20 Cloudy morning with a North Breeze—I was on guard part of the morning. the Cattle were gathered up, and at 10 min: to 8 Camp again moved on their journey—crossed a Creek and a Slough as they empty into the Platte opposite an Island—continued our course a short distance from the River. in some places the ground was very Springy, rocking like a cradle—in other places, firm ground, with a thin tall sprinkling of grass—at ¼ past 10 passed a lone Cedar Tree having in it the body of an Indian Child—it was wrapped in a thin wrapper of Straw, then a wrapper of deer Skin—also a second over Skin—covered with a Buffalo Robe, & lashed to the Tree with Raw Hide bands. —a very cold morning—I suffered much from the effects of the Cold Weather—at 25 min: to 11 halted for noon on a patch of tall grass, thinly scattered—on the South side the Bluffs begin to have a Rocky appearance & are more Bald than they have been—and have Cedar & Pine Trees scattered about on the sides; & directly opposite our halting ground in a Wide Chasm several White Ash Trees. three Islands a little to the West have Cedar Trees on them—the Revenue Cutter went over, with L. Johnson, J. Brown, A. Lyman & O. Pratt & brought back branches of Mountain Cherry; & a Medicinal Shrub, a Canker Medicine, in flowers—The Wild Currant with fruit on—Rose tree with berries on—a branch of the blue Bells, and also report it to be the Ash Valley where the Oregon trail, comes down to the North Fork—they saw a large quantity of grape vines in blossom, & the grave of an Oregon Emigrant, that brother Brown assisted to bury last year. the Rocks are a Soft Limestone & abrupt. at 10 min: to 2 the Camp again pursued its journey, nearly following the course of the River—about 5 several Showers passed ahead of us. we crossed a large stream of Water <& named it "Castle Bluff River"> full of Quicksand, but the brethren rushed the teams thro' at a rapid rate and in quick succession, thereby getting thro' safely, & making the road better for the last teams. then came upon a road having sweet smelling herbs on it; The Rocks on the South side, have much the appearance of Castellated Towers and look very handsome and romantic—one was expressed to be like Solomon's Temple . ½ past 5 a Shower passed over the Camp, and at ¼ to 6 the Camp came to a halt for the night, near the River, having plenty of water, feed and wood[.] during the formation of the Circle, I saw a large striped Snake, which was thrown out of our road, and out of the reach of harm—travelled[.] 15¾ miles.
Tuesday 21 Opened with a very pleasant morning, scarce any Wind & that in the South—Clear Sky—I commenced making a Synopsis of the Pioneer Journal for Dr.Richards—at 7 min: to 8 the Camp started, in nearly the centre of the Valley to Bluffs in the South side of the River, running very near the River—many Swallows and other birds, flying about. crossed some Marshy places—the remainder of the road appears clayey—at 20 min: after 11 the Camp halts to feed the teams in pretty good grass—while Prests. Young & Kimball were riding a head, they saw five cub Wolves, succeeded in killing two, while three escaped to their den, when the Camp halted, the brethren went to dig them out, but were unsuccessful—at 35 min: after 1 Camp again pursued the course, principally thro' dry grass, in some places deep—this afternoon we had several Frog Symphonies in different Sloughs as we passed along—went over a gentle Bluff, then crossed to dry Creek. where Dr.Richards found a petrified Bone of some large Animal —directly afterwards two Indians of the Sioux nation, rode up to Camp—several others were seen peeping over the edge of the hill—at ¼ to 6 the Camp halted for the night having travelled 15½ miles—small Clouds in the horizon, pleasant day—after Sunset a full Frog Symphony, full of music & variety.
the Prairie set on fire by the brethren .
Saturday 22 Very Pleasant morning. Clear Sky—gentle breeze from South East—Dr.Richards measured the Bone 17¾ inch long <11 wide, 6 thick, inferior 5.> weight 27 lbs. he then buried it, placing beside it a board written "Mammoth Bone Encampment 21 & 22 May 1847 Pioneers" on the reverse "all well. Sioux Indians seen here". left this Camping ground at ¼ past 8[.] after travelling a short distance passed thro' a large patch of dry weeds about 7 feet high. then <9 h 20 m> over a dry Creek—continued our road near the Bluffs, and passed thro' a "dry Creek" about 3 rods wide—continued our route nearer to the Bluffs—about <10h 50m> 11 oclock crossed another shallow Creek about 20 25 feet wide, then travelled within a fourth of a mile—& camped near a bold Bluff—on the South side of the River[.] on the top of the Bluffs was a Grove of Trees, appearing to be Cedar or Pine. we camped in two different divisions on account of feed being rather scarce at 11 37. staid for our noon halt until 1 45 when the Camp again got under motion, continuing our route near the Bluffs, passing thro' a very large patch of xxxxxxxxxxx , succeeded by a great quantity of the Prickly Pear, then pulled over several ridges and valleys of Sand; then commenced ascending a high hill, between two Pyramids during which time there was a Hare Hunt parallel with our line of march—Elder A. Lyman ascended a large Steep Rock on horseback, exactly personating Napoleon Buonaparte [Bonaparte] crossing the Alps, & the teams pulling up the steep hill, much represented the crossing of "the Great St. Bernard" in Europe—after a toilsome march, succeeded in getting over without doubling teams—then was presented to our view a splendid view of some Rocks, having the appearance of Round & Square Towers, Castles, Relicks, Chimneys & all the appearance of Ancient Ruins—which named of "Ancient <"Bluff> Ruins" was given to the Rocks —at the same time there was a thunder & lightning, shower or rain passing in the distance from S. to North. in rounding, and descending the Bluffs, came in full view of the "Chimney Rock" on the South Side of the River, several miles to the West of us—I killed a Rattlesnake with seven rattles on. then descended a Sand hill, twice crossing the Sandy Bed of a River about three rods wide, coming to the bottoms again within 20 rods of the River about 5. 50—continued along the bottom until 6 P.M. when the Circle was forming for the night, between "Ancient Ruins" and the River—George R. Grant caught on the top of one of the apparent Square Towers, and brought into Camp a young Grey Eagle, measuring 46 inches between the tips of his Wings. the nest he said was more than 5 feet in diameter, he saw the two old Eagles flying above. Luke Johnson killed 3 Rattle Snakes having 4, 8, & 12 rattles on—gave them to me. Dr.Richards then had the bunch of 12 rattles. at Sunset another heavy thunder Shower approaching the Camp from the South East—the lightning being vivid, & forked. a terrible yellow looking cloud threatens hard what we are to expect. but it passed a little East of the Camp.
Sunday 23 Opened with a clear Sky, and very warm morning—I was on guard till 10 when the horn was blown to gather in the Cattle, when they were taken in—I found that all of the Twelve, had started on an exploring excursion to the Mountains at 9 24[.] they visited several of the Bluffs, before they arrived at "Observation Bluff" where there was a Cedar growing on the South East end of it—Professor Pratt took an observation by which he found it was 235 Feet higher than the River—several of them engraved their names in the Bark, or wrote them on the White of the Bark—rolled down some large Shards from the top—and returned to Camp at 11 5—as brother Nathaniel Fairbanks, was descending from one of the Bluffs he was bit on the left side of the calf of his left leg, by a very large yellow Rattle Snake, but before his companions could return to kill it—it had again returned to its hole & escaped. by the time that he could return to Camp & procure medical assistance (about ½ past 9) his tongue was dry—leg swollen, pain in his belly & eyes dimmer. Luke Johnson immediately applied a Corn meal mush Poultice, with Tincture of Lobelia, and No. 6 at the same time giving him a Lobelia Emetic, and then another—Fairbanks complained much of the pain in his belly.
at ½ past 12 meeting was opened by the Prest. calling on the brethren to sing a hymn, he then made prayer—another hymn sung—when Erastus Snow spoke a few minutes & was followed by Prest Young & G.A. Smith—meeting dismissed at 2½ P.M. (see TB's minutes on file) dried off the articles found—& lost.
after meeting Luke Johnson & I went to the top of "Observation Bluff", in order that I might engrave on the Cedar Tree the altitude under Professor Pratts' name. while I was on the very top of the bluff, a rattle snake challenged for battle, his rattles startled me—I sprung over him, calling to Luke, he turned round, and said "if that's the way you fight my friend, I take his part in the battle["]—the Snake continued shaking his rattles, when Luke put his rifle to his Shoulder, & woing went the Snake's head & cutting his body in two pieces —I then engraved "235 Feet" under O. Pratt's name—writing our names, descended from the Bluff—found a Mammoth bone imbedded in the soil, one portion of it was bare, while the remainder was covered with 7 or 8 feet of soil—we succeeded in digging out a portion of it. at 3 P.M. it was a lovely day, but it suddenly changed to a severe storm of Wind, the clouds gathered very dark—& before we could return to Camp, it blew almost a hurricane of Wind succeeded by rain, hail, thunder & lightning which continued till after Sunset. the Cattle were all tied for the night. at this place W. Woodruff saw a perfectly Square Snake, which coiled itself up in a fighting attitude and vomited out about a table spoonful of blood at him. he had heard of such a Snake in these quarters—& if the wind blew from the Snake towards a man he would be poisoned by it. fortunately for Elder Woodruff he received no accident.
Monday 24. Cold Cloudy morning with North Wind—this morning brother Fairbanks was a little easier in pain, but his leg was considerably sworn [swollen]—made out another "Sketches from Journal No. 3" making another Post office, sealed it up, endorsing it to "C.C. Rich or any member of the Camp of Israel", put the Letter Box in the ground having endorsed it "Ancient Ruins Bluffs"—at 8 20 left this Encampment, and took almost a strait course towards the Chimney Rock, passing a rock very much resembling an Ancient Sacrificial Altar, about two miles from starting point—continued our route until 12 45 when camp had passed over a small rise of ground, who and halted, near the River—two Sioux Indians came to our Camp, whom we fed with bread, meat, beans, & Coffee; they gave signs that they were Camped on the South side of the River. when they crossed the river, our Camp again resumed its journey at 2 52, pursuing a strait course twards the Chimney.—over a level road, and when approaching the River, saw a drove of Indians on the gallop on the opposite side of the River, riding in the direction of our Camp; which caused a Messenger to be sent a head, to cause the forward teams to halt; and commenced forming the Circle for defence. at 5 25 it was nearly formed, but could not be completed for more than half an hour after, in consequence of John Pack, O.K. Whitney & 3 other teams having loitered behind. the Indians waved a flag on the opposite side of the River, which we answered by sending the "White Flag of Peace", & hoisting it on one side the River, with Col[one]l. Rockwood & H.G. Sherwood to receive them, & learn their intentions. the Indians crossed the River, being 35 men, women & Children, who brought two letters of recommend written in French—one was given to "O Wash te cha on Belle Journie" and signed by "G.D. Papia" the other was to "Louis Brave or the Brave Bear" and signed at "Fort John December 24, 1846" the Chief "O Wash te cha" had a large medal hung round his neck, having inscribed on one side "Pierre Chouteau Jr & Co upper Missouri outfit" with the bust of a man in the center—on the reverse [drawing with the words Peace and Friendship] the "Brave Bear" held in his hand a flag bearing the Stripes and Eagle—with "E. Pluribus unum"—but no Stars were on the Indians Banner—which is emblematical of America scouring the Indians but giving no Star of glory to the Sons of the Prairie. the recommends were partially deciphered by bro: Carrington and several Indians visited the Camp—Five of the principal men, were escorted round the Camp, showing them several Six Shooters and Fifteen Shooters, and the Cannon Company were put thro' their evolutions, which brought out the exclamation "Wash te", or good—Tobacco was given them, when the Five smoked round, giving the Pipe to Prest. Richards to smoke—they conversed by signs until after the Guard was set—one of them with his Squaw slept in a tent within our Guard's Watch, the remainder slept a short distance outside our Guards.
Tuesday 25 a severe frost thro' the night, some damp Clothes that were left out—were covered with a thick hoar frost, called Black Frost—the Indians were in, and round the Camp from Sunrise to the time of Starting, going about just as their Curiosity led them, some to get bread & other things. some trading mocassins, Blankets, Horses &c[.] one of the Chiefs "Wash te ka" was very pressing for a written paper, when I wrote the following. "This to Certify that Wash te ka of the Dacotah tribe of Indians, with O Wash te cha the principal Chief, and thirty three other men, women and children, visited our Camp on the 24th and 25th May 1847, behaved themselves civilly and peaceably; we gave them bread—they were very friendly to us, and the best behaved Indians we have yet seen. W. Richards", "Thomas Bullock—Scribe"—after this Certificate was given to Wash to ka, the Indians shook hands, mounted their horses, and rode away to the River where they crossed yesterday. the Cattle were gathered up, as the Indians were leaving the Camp, and we started on our journey at 8 20 going round a large Sand hill. Dr.Richards being the Pioneer, on foot; at 9:23 stopped to bait on a Green patch of grass—I was so sick that I went to bed in Drs. Wagon. Bro. Little driving my team for me, started again at 11—taking a short course, and again halting at 1 20 to refresh the teams—staid till 2 45 when I got up to drive my team Dr. gave me some tea & Cayennne Pepper to warm me up—I took 3 doses during the day—we started in almost a strait line—the Dr. picking out the road all the way until within half a mile of the Camping ground. The teams turned round to the right hand, instead of the left where the Dr.was—and halted at 5 30 in good dry grass but in a wet sloppy bottom—having travelled 12 miles
the Camp halted NE by N. about 5 miles from the Chimney Rock—having had a warm day[.] S.W. breeze. hunters kill 2 Wolves & 2 Antelopes. while Dr.Richards was picking out the road, he saw a Rattlesnake in the path, he fired at it 3 times with his pistol, but the Snake dodged each time—the 4th time he fired at the body, cutting him in two. this evening Prest Young had his Supper on bread baked by his wife; in his own Oven in Nauvoo last January 12 months—it was still very good—very few men can say like unto it—the brethren dig 3 wells about 5 or 6 feet deep.
Wednesday 26 was another delightful Spring morning—while I was engaged filling up the Drs. Water Bottle, my Ink Bottle fell out of my pocket into the Well. there being about four feet of Water in it. I went to work—emptied the Well, descended and after groping some time in the mud bottom—I again found it safe & sound. the Camp started at 8 o clock, again taking a strait course, when opposite the Chimney Rock, Professor Pratt took an observation & reports his result at 41° 45' 58" N. Lat—and the height, as near as he could get it, from where he was, 260 ft high—variation of compass 12". the shape of the rock is nearly [drawing of upside down funnel]—immediately afterwards the horse that Col[one]l. Markham had from the Indians, started off in full gallop with the horses & Single tree banging behind him, his fright started five teams out of the ranks in different directions, the Cows dingling their bells, and the Dogs barking into all directions, made a scene of confusion for a few minutes—soon they got into order again & continued until 12
3 where we halted near Green grass and Water—3 abrupt bluffs, one like an immense brick kiln, is nearest the river—the next more like a Pyramid & much smaller—all the Bluffs on the South side are abrupt. at 2 15 the Camp again started in a strait line, until near time to halt, when the Camp steered towards the River, and formed a Circle at 5 P.M. where was pretty good Green grass—I may here observe that away from the River—feed is very poor—& no wood—but on the banks, the feed is better, & can pick up drift wood <7¼[,] 5 [=] 12½ miles> a warm afternoon. 4 Antelopes & 4 Wolf killed—about 7 the Wind commenced blowing from the S. West
Thursday 27 a delightful Spring morning—Col[one]l. Markham's Indian horse strayed away the Colonel went after him—and with some difficulty again secured him—while I was out gathering up the Oxen—I saw two Parrots with their yellow breasts—chattering away, at 7 & 50 Camp started away—taking nearly a strait course for Scotts Bluffs [Bluff]. very little grass on the route—staid a short time to water the Cattle, & then continued our journey until 11 40 when Camp came to noon halt, opposite a steep bluff, resembling a large fortress, having towers & bastions in clear, distinct & cold appearance—the small trees scattered about upon it, are not bad representations of the men in a fortress. before leaving the Camp I planted three seeds of White corn near the Drs. Wagon to show the next Camp of brethren, Indian corn growing on the Prairie—by orders of the Dr—at 1:40 Camp again moved off over a barren level road, with scarce a blade of grass for about 4 miles, nothing save the Prickly Pear growing—then descended to a bottom where was some Green grass, continued on that, until 4 40 when the Camp halted for the night, having travelled 13¾ miles (<8 a m.>) (5¾ P.M.) turned out the Cattle on a blue grass to feed—about 6 it commenced to rain. 4 Antelopes killed and brought into Camp by the Hunters
Friday 28 A dull cloudy morning. many flowers similar to Wild Roses in bloom. cold East Wind—an unpleasant mizzling rain commenced about ½ past 6 which was the cause of Col[one]l Rockwood calling the Camp together round the Cutter, and after a few observations, it was voted to remain in our present place until the rain subsided—all the brethren then dispersed to their Wagons. I went into the Drs. Wagon and Tracked our route on a map, also made another tracing of the North Fork—from the Junction to Fort Laiamie [Laramie]—the rain having subsided, the horn was blowed to gather up the Cattle; the wet grass, wet me thro'—at 10 56 started from our encampment, over a barren plain—about noon, passed "Trout Book" a small clear stream which had its origin in a Spring—there were many Speckled Trout, and other Fish in it—also a Beaver House & Dam across it—several of the Brethren declared tht they were the first Trout they had seen since they left the Eastern States—continued our work over a barren level for several miles, then descended a gentle steep & travelled on a marshy bottom, where the Saline deposit made its appearances again—on our journey saw several trees on the Islands which was like old scenes to us—at 4 50 Camp halted for the night about ½ mile from the River where we found plenty of drift wood, in addition to two large trees, which had been cut down by some persons previously: & one large tree blown down—I went for a load & was tired out—& after beginning my journal had to lay it down as usual, George Brown coming for me to fetch him the Cow (Note: I have had more hard words, & insolent behavior from him, than any other person since I left Nauvoo—having to assist him, attend to Cattle, & drive a team, is the cause, that I have so little down in my Journal, I could wish to have had the best, & fullest Journal of this mission, but am sorry I cannot do more—may the Lord accept what I have written, & done in this Journey. Amen) a dull cloudy day, with a North East Wind.
at 9 20 Prest. Young called H.C. Kimball, W. Richards, W. Woodruff & E.T. Benson to his Wagon
Saturday 29 Was a miserable mizzling rain; the 3rd & 4th. Tens not having any Guard out, the Cattle strayed away between 3 & 4 miles—when the rain subsided, the horn was blowed to gather up the Cattle—I went out about 2 miles & got very wet about my feet—after all the Cattle were hitched up, the brethren were all collected inside the Circle. I called over all the names of the men in Camp—brothers Joseph Hancock & Andrew Gibbans [Gibbons] absent, all the rest present at 11 45 when Prest. Young addressed them severely on their levity, dancing, Checkers, Cards, Swearing, &c when the Priesthood was called into ranks; of the Twelve, 8, High Priests 19. Seventies 78[;] Elders 8 who severally covenanted with the uplifted hand, to serve the Lord, humble themselves, repent of their sins, cleave unto the Lord, renew their former Covenants—(see TB's minutes) it was a very solemn & impressive meeting[.] dismissed at 10 mins to 2 1 20. and at 1 30 the Camp pursued their Journey. take a strait line to where the Bluffs & River meet—passed thro' & halted on a level spot of barren ground near a Creek at 5 30 having travelled 8½ miles[.] on the Islands in the River were several trees in very Green leaf, which was a pleasing sight—it commenced raining about 5 & continued thro' the evening
Sunday 30 A cool pleasant morning. at 8 A.M. the brethren assembled on a Green dry spot near the Camp, for the purpose of prayer, praise & Confession of Sins[.] Bishop Tarlton Lewis taking the lead of the meeting, commenced by singing "The Spirit of God like a fire is burning". many of the brethren prayed, spoke and sung, which continued until 10 min: after 10, when meeting was dismissed to gather up the Cattle preparatory to Sacrament meeting at 11. after the Cattle were all gathered up, the brethren again assembled at the same place for prayer and Sacrament—the rain commencing as soon as the cup had been passed round brought the meeting to a close sooner than intended—
12:30 TheTwelve, Rockwood, Shumway, P.H. Young, Snow, Clayton, Pack went to a Valley in the bluffs & prayed, while Rockwell & Carrington watched. "Thomas Bullock could not be found—[blank space] 1.30 returned"
I confess, I have not been 45 yards from Camp, not out of sight since last night—after morning's meeting returned to my Wagon, & back from Wagon to the Sacrament meeting. I was not the tenth part so grieved, to leave My Wife and all my children sick, one near the point of death—in Winter Quarters—as I am now grieved, that yesterday I covenanted to serve the Lord, and to day I am reported "Thomas Bullock cannot be found" when I have prepared every thing for the meeting—was perfectly ready—& in sight of my Wagon, all the time, for a moment's notice—I have been deprived of one of my greatest & sacred privileges. O my God, look down upon my tears & suffering & have mercy on me—wherein I have offended thee, make it manifest to me, that I may repent, whatever it may be—in a short time the rain left off, & cleared up for a fine afternoon[.] in the evening J.C. Little gathered some Prickly Pears & stewed them in Sugar, I tasted of them, they were good. at ½ past 5 another Shower of rain passed over Camp.
<JuneMay> Monday 31 a very fine day, clear sky—gathered up Cattle & started at 8:10 over a barren country, yet abounding with Prickly Pears—I was taken very sick with ague and Fever, & was obliged to relinquish driving my teams to Conrad Klineman [Kleinman]—the brethren kill 1 Rattlenake—Camp halts at 12 20 on the top of a Sand hill, a considerable distance from the River. the brethren dig a well 4 or 5 feet deep to get excellent water—at 2 45 again start—Dr. Richards having removed me into his Wagon & administered Composition Tea &cJ.C. Little drove my team in the afternoon, passed several Trees & Bushes, travel over a very heavy Sandy road & Camp at 6 30 having travelled <10> [and] 6¾ [=] 16¾ on "Raw Hide Creek"—the Hunters kill 1 Deer—in the evening Dr. Administered a Lobelia Emetic—& attended me through the operation
Tuesday 1 I continued with a great deal of Fever, through the day, still continuing in the Drs. Wagon. Camp start at [blank space] crossing the "Raw Hide" Cr[eek] and seeing many trees on the banks of the River, having on our right very Sandy Bluffs and Rocks—passed 4 bodies of Indians hid up in Skins and fastened to the Trees, this being a preferable manner of disposing of the dead, to burying them in the ground for the Wolves to dig them up again and devour them—the noon halt was opposite the place where a trading house formerly belonging to Mr Richiau stood, but which has since been burnt to the ground—continued our route and in a short time heard the cry of "I see Fort Laramie", when all were anxious to see an habitation once more—came into a very pretty vale, turned round a point of timber, & camped on the banks of the River opposite "Fort John"—<12 miles> before we could form the Circle[.] two brethren came to us, Robert Crow & George W. Therekill—who told us—the man on the look out reported that he saw 500 wagons coming up the North side—which Bro. Crow knew to be brethren—they have been at the Fort 16 days, came from the Mississippi Camp at Pueblo—the brethren there would start about 1st June for this place, the Battalion would be furnished with 3 months provisions
at 8:55 the Council & Captains, met at the Prest. Wagon when it was decided that 2 men out of each 10 should watch the Cattle. the Blacksmiths should burn Coal to repair Wagons—Col Rockwood should charter the Boat in order to ferry over all the Wagons, the Water being too high to ford, & that all Wagons should be overhauled &c James Case, Shadrach Roundy, & Seth Taft were appointed to overhaul and Select Plows. Council closed at 9:50.
Wednesday 2 opened with a very pleasant morning. Clear Sky[.] at ¼ past 9 the Twelve & several others started for Fort Laramie; crossed the River which is 108 yards wide, first visiting Fort Platte in ruins—Wm. Clayton & Thos. Bullock measured at 144 by 103.2 outisde—the door at the East side[.] 9 9 height of walls 11 feet—the door way on S. side 10.6 wide—all the walls were about 30 inch thick; round the inside of the Walls were 15 rooms the one on the S.W. corner appeared to have been a Store—these small rooms 16 x 15 surround a yard 61 9 by 56—on the Chimney piece of the 2nd room on the West side were paintings of a horse & a Buffalo but little defaced—on the North side, was the yard for horses 98 9 by 47 Feet having on the N.W. Corner a square tower with holes to shoot thro' on both sides—which was 9 3 Square—on the N.E. Corner—was an attached building 29 4 by 19 6 outside dimensions—see "the lower" plat on next page. the Oregon trail runs one rod from the S.W. Angle of the Fort. running the River Road, under the Bluffs, the building was made with unburnt bricks, & had been white washed[.] we then went to Fort Laramie, arriving at 10 15 we were shown up a flight of stairs, into a large room, where we found Seats—Bedstead, Desk—a fiddle, & some Pictures; Mr Bourdeaux the principal man in the fort ans:d all questions that were put to him. after staying a short time here then visited the Store—& had a short conversation with the Store keeper.
Professor Pratt took an observation at noon
[drawing of two plats]
Snow was distinctly seen on the top of Laramie Peak with the naked eye, which is upwards of 100 miles distant—we were informed there had not been any rain here for two years. & we are informed it is 350 miles to Fort Bridger—at ¼ to 1 a company of Indians came to pay a visit to the Fort—one of the men having an Indian wife, & these were her relatives—not only were the horses loaded with Tent poles, but a dog had also some attached & dragging—at 1 13 the brethren got into the Boat on their return trip to Camp. had a pretty sail down Laramie River, arrived at the Platt[e] 1 57—the brethren drerw up the Boat & returned to Camp 2 16—on our descending Laramie River, saw a Bald Eagle perched on the top of a Stump. he was alarmed at our approach & flew away
a short distance from Fort John was an Indian Corpse raised upon Poles & Cross Poles—found many Mushrooms, much Mustard & Pig Weed about. At the Store Sheeting, Shirting, Calicoes & Cottons are 1.00 per yard[;] Butcher Knife 1.00—Robes from 3 to 5.00[;] Buck Skins 2 to 3.00. Mocassins 1.00[;] Cows from 15. to 25.00[;] Horses & Ponies 40. Flour .25 per lb.
Thursday 3 a dull cloudy morning, commenced ferrying the Wagons over at Sunrise and continued all day, except during the thunder shower in the afternoon, which commenced at ¼ to 2. Thundering, Lightning, Rain & Hail and continued about an hour—many of the brethren were busy picking Beads out of the Sand hills, which were made by the ants. & they gathered Beads & small Stones to preserve their habitations from being blown away—in the forenoon, I made a duplicate of the letter to Capt. Brown, for Elder Lyman—the Prest. wrote a note in pencil to send at same time.
Prests. Young & Richards signed Elder A. Lyman's authority—letters & duplicate to Capt. Brown—& letter to Elder Dowdle—both at Fort Pueblo.
made up the mail of 349 letters to the Battalion, gave it to Thomas Woolsey appointing him Deputy Postmaster—Dr. instructed him to bring back all the letters that he did not deliver to the brethren—at 11 A.M. Prests Young, Richards, Kimball and Pratt—accompanied the brethren A. Lyman, Thomas Woolsey, Roswell Stevens & John H. Tibbets to the Ford of Laramie River—& took Seats on a large tree fallen on the banks of the River. Prest. Young read some instructions, which he had previously written to the brethren and gave them to Amasa Lyman, he told the brethren that they had accomplished their designs in getting the Battalion to Mexico—but the brethren at Pueblo must not follow Brown to Mexico but go to California. If the officer will not do right, he instructed Amasa to call out the men, and choose officers who would do right—if the Battalion are at Santa Fe those brethren to go there, & bring the Battalion on [.] also & if the Pueblo command is gone there to pursue them & bring them back, and if Gen. Kearney is there & objects to their returning, according to our agreement, tell him we are bound for California, and throw all of the Gentile officers out of the Battalion when you come up to it. brother Young said he was very angry with the President, when he learned that his orders were, not to enlist more than ‚Öì Mormons in his Army on any consideration—The brethren all kneeled while Prest. Young led in prayer—he then blessed the brethren, who arrived on the opposite bank at 11 27 who went on their way & Council returned to Camp.
Phinehas Young and Tunis Rappleyee were present also—The brethren were 11 minutes in crossing a Wagon & returning[.] West Wind.
I went to the Fort with bro Litle & ret'nd before 6 when it again &xxxxxxxxxx
Friday 4 a fine morning. I wrote a letter to C.C. Rich giving him instructions regarding our journey. (copy on file) took same to Fort Laramie, in company with Prests. Young, Kimball & Richards also A.P. Rockwood, who settled for the Boat, Dr. Richards wrote a note to Winter Quarters. & left same with Mr. Bordeaux[.] Mr. B. remarked to bro. Rockwood that there never had passed Ft. Laramie. such a company as this, for this people would not go any where without first asking liberty to go & they felt a pleasure in seeing us, & showing us thro'—when any company of only 10 or a dozen Wagons came along, they would run & peep into every room, & every thing, & they (of the Fort) had plenty to do to watch that the people did not steal any thing. when Ex Gov. Boggs passed thro' he was all the time railing about the Mormons being bad people but he was told, that the Mormons could not be worse than that Company, for they were fighting every, or every other night—but the people of the Fort several times expressed their great pleasure at seeing us, expressing themselves that we were the best behaved Company that had passed there, & stated their intention of visiting us when we got settled—Dr. Luke Johnson attended some of them in his medical capacity, they paid him mocassins, Skin, &c he gave T.B. a pair of Mocassins—after visitng their carral, Store &c the President returned to Camp, where all the brethren who were there, followed to Camp—when the teams were gathered up; & the Camp started from this place at 12 oclock—taking the road under the Bluffs. at 1 15 having come to good grass. Camp came to a halt to feed the Cattle; at 2 27 moved again, continuing the road, by the River. we moved through an immense quantity of grasshoppers—during a Warm afternoon[.] the scenery is altogether different to what we have had of late—bold ragged bluffs, speckled with Cedar and Pine Trees—the river bottom was interspersed with Cotton Wood Trees, & Wild Choke Cherry bushes—there were some conical hills on the North side covered with Cedar Trees; which is quite a variety & change of scene for the eye—the road is very irregular & uneven. we came to a very steep bank of Sand where the teams had to halt several times—a Mr. Archibald Litle (a new comer this day) ill used his oxen very bad, striking them on the head & body with the butt end of his Whip—Prests. Young & Richards & 6 or 7 of the brethren went to assist him with his team, but he treated their assistance with contempt, all the time thumping away at the Oxen—the brethren then left him to get up himself; Prest. Young remarking that there had been more abuse of Cattle in those few minutes – than by all the brethren since they left Winter Quarters—after the ascent, continued our route by the River—we had a very steep hill to descend between 4 & 5. we not only locked Wheels, but had attached ropes to the hind end of the Wagons the brethren holding back the same time—in about 2 hours we got safely thro' & halt for the night at 5 20 on the bottom, near the River having travelled 8¼ miles—a thunder shower passing over at the time from N. directly afterwards saw two perfect rainbows in the heavens—and an Eagle flying in the air.
this day Robert Crow
Benjamin B. Crow
Elizabeth Jane Crow
John McHenry Crow
Walter H. Crow
Martilla Jane Therlkill
George W. Therlkill
Milton Howard Therlkill
James William Therlkill
William Parker Crow
Isa Vinda Exene Crow
Ira Minda Almarene Crow [-] joined our Camp at leaving Fort Laramie
Lewis B. Meyers
with 5 Wagons
12 Yoke of Oxen
joined our Camp at leaving Fort Laramie
in the evening I visited the entire Camp and found
Saturday 5 Cloudy morning with a gentle South breeze—4 Eagles flying round about—on gathering up the Cattle, several yoke were missing; another hunt took place when they were discovered on an Island, straying among the young Cotton Wood Shrubs—at 8 9 the Camp started—passing under some very bold Bluffs of Plaster of Paris at 9:20, the weather cleared up—on coming to the hills we had a very difficult spot to ascend, pass thro' & again descend to a prairie. then turned from the River to the left up a gravel bottom, & halt at 11 50 near the "Warm Spring"—went to visit it & drink of the Water—it was a beautiful clear Spring, slightly warm & in sufficient quantity to turn a Mill Wheel—while at this place a Camp of 11 Wagons pass by the Mountain route with a guide or Pilot—at 1 35 our Camp started again—passing thro' a narrow defile & then ascending a steep hill; on reaching the top came on a beautiful undulating prairie, taking a circuitous route to the 20 mile post, then ascend a hill to a dry gravel bottom and pass round the hill during a pleasant Shower from the West which produced a double rainbow—& pass the other Camp & halt at 6 30 having travelled 17 miles on "Bitter Creek" we found good feed for our Cattle—G.A. Smith & I went to the top of the Bluffs being the Guard in that direction, & there found Prests. Young, Kimball & Richards, viewing the Country with their Telescopes; we could clearly discern Snow on the top of the Laramie Peak. An Antelope killed. at dark it commenced raining heavy with lightning & thunder.
NOTE: On our return this fall, after ascending the Steep Hill, & shortly before coming to the 20 Mile Stake, pass to the right, taking a strait line to the centre cluster of Trees, will save 2 miles at the distance
Sunday 6 A Cloudy morning. Heard a young child cry, which is quite a novelty to us, in the Pioneer Camp of Israel; the Gentile Camp passed ours about 8 & as soon as they were clear away from our Cattle—the Horn was blown for the brethren, to assemble themselves to prayer meeting. opened by singing & prayer then the brethren spoke their feelings & experience. a very good & lively meeting was continued until ½ past 10. the rules I read, & the President adjourned the meeting to assemble again in an hour—at ½ past 11 the horn having blown the brethren met again, while thunder was rolling in the distance & increasing in violence. Orson Pratt called on the Choir to sing, when the hymn on 95th page "With all my powers of heart & tongue" was sung, followed by E.T. Benson offering prayer to the throne of grace—Prest. Young seeing the van of the next Emigrating Company approaching our Camp, gave orders to Col Rockwood to see that our Cattle were got out of their way—& as a Storm was commencing, directed that the meeting should be dismissed, which was done by Elder Pratt. the brethren had scarce got to their Wagons, before the Storm passed over the Camp, & the 2nd Gentile Camp passed ours at the same time—there being a long journey to Horse Shoe Creek & more than would be well for our Cattle; it was thought the best way to go a short distance this afternoon; accordingly the teams were gathered up, & at 2.35 our Camp again pursued their journey, along the banks of "Bitter [Cottonwood] Creek" going thro' to grove of Cotton Wood & Willow Trees, which is a rarity on this journey. passed thro' a small quantity of very good grass, then took a sudden bend to the left, round a Ravine, & again crossed over "Bitter Creek" then halted for 40 minutes, while our Exploring Company go to search a place for the night, on their return, the Camp again moves on & passes the other Camp coming to a halt for the night at 5 22 having travelled 5 Miles—a N. wind, pleasant afternoon—here we found plenty of grass for the Cattle—travelled by the most Timber this day, than any where, since we left Grand Island.
In the evening Prest. Richards having heard that he could send a letter to San Francisco—he wrote a letter to Mr Samuel Brannan, giving him particulars of the situation of the Saints, which I copied, & afterwards read in Prest. Young's Wagon, to Prests. Young, Kimball, Richards & Woodruff—who were satisfied with it. Prest Richards & Woodruff returned to R's Wagon, made an addition—& closed by W. Woodruff being mouth in prayer.
Monday 7 A Pleasant morning with a South West Breeze. the 2nd Camp passed thro' our Circle, numbering 19 Wagons, 2 Buggys, 25 Horses, 73 Yoke of Oxen, & about 100 Cows. the Horn was then blown to gather up our teams, & at 7 15 we made a start, leaving a letter to C.C. Rich in a Box "To Fort John 30¼ Miles" on the Reverse"W.R." & go to the dry bed of a creek, which we travel along, go up twice, & cross 6 times, being in a valley between gentle undulating hills. when we arrived at a small Spring halted to Water & feed. when another Camp of 13 Wagons, 14 Horses, 64 Cows & 43 yoke of oxen pass us . we then ascended some hills skirted & dotted with Pine Timber; where at the top we had a view of a most beautiful Country being in two directions like an immense Park, without any fence, & dotted with Pines. on the other side had a full view of Laramie Peak, covered with Timber, & topt with Snow; we then commenced our descent, the brethren having to grade the hill in some places. had to lock the Wheels twice. descended to the bed of a Creek & again made another steep ascent, which after crossing came down to the Horse Shoe Creek. saw all the three Camps at one view a head of us—finding most Excellent Grass—the most beautiful Spring of Water yet seen on this route; and an abundance of Timber[.] we halted at 3 50 when a Heavy Thunder Shower of Hail & rain descended. Killed 2 Deer & An Antelope. found in this place plenty of Sweet Sicily, Peppermint & yarrow—Prest. Richards all day engaged picking Stones, out of the way of the Teams—& preparing a better road. in the Evening a very strong Wind—but our Camp was sheltered by the Timber—travelled 13 miles
Tuesday 8 a fine morning—gather up teams & start at 7.20 crossing the Horse Shoe Creek taking a bend to the left. see a Buffalo capering on the Prairie. & then ascend the steepest and most difficult hill yet seen on our route. many of the teams were under the necessity of doubling in order to get up, which all did without any accident[.] I left a Buffalo Skull written on "Pioneers——8 June 1847—Camp all well—Hail Storm last night fine morning—T. Bullock—no accident"—on the top of the hill had a splendid view of the Country, on each side for I should suppose 80 or 100 miles. on the left side of our Road saw the hills & peaks rising to a great distance—there descended from our elevation having to lock Wheels. about 11 oclock Sister Harriett Crow got on the Wagon tongue to get a drink of Water. as she was jumping down, her Coat caught by the Wagon Hammer & she fell to the ground, her husband seized her, pulled her body from under the Wheel, but her coat being still entangled on the Wagon Hammer could not clearly extricate her, before the front Wheel passed over her Thigh & Ancle [ankle], fortunately no bones were broken. she was much bruised; had great pain but before night was considerably easier—crossed a Creek where we watered our Cattle, & again pursued our journey until 11 55 when we halted on pretty good grass, found scrub Thistles at this place—at 1 40 Camp again started ascending and descending hills all the afternoon. between 4 & 5 a very Strong Cold Wind commenced blowing from the West—the Clouds hung very heavy & threatened much for Snow or Rain—Prest. Richards with A.P. Rockwood, Albert Carrington, Jacob Weilar, James Craig & Horace Thornton all day—H.K. Whitney & Burr Frost in the forenoon & Artemas Johnson in the afternoon, clearing the rest of the Stones that were on it, & preparing the Way for the Camp to follow. The Camp halt at 6 10 on "La Bonte" Creek. where we found Cotton Wood & Black Ash Trees & the Choke Cherry Shrub in a pretty Camping place. Hunters kill 2 Deer & An Antelope—<6¾ A.M.> 8¾ P.M. [total] 15½ miles[.] immediately after Camping[,] William Tucker & another Trapper paid a visit to the Camp. Tucker was sick with the Chills & Fever. Dr. Johnson administered to him—James Greive was the principal of the men, William Tucker James Woodrie; James Bouvoir & 6 other Frenchmen with 2 Squaws, 2 Wagons 3 Carts &c made up the Camp 1½ miles from us. Prest. Richards & T.B. went to visit the traders—& were joined by Prest. Woodruff. they reported about 50 miles to the crossing of the Platte good feed on our route. Mr. Bridger at home—about 300 Miles from here—can ride to Salt Lake in two days from Bridgers. Utah Country a beautiful Country. have to go down, & in Green River some distance—
on return met Prests. Young, Kimball, & others who returned with us to Camp.
Wednesday 9 The feed getting scant here, Camp arose by day break, hitch up, & remove at <4h 40min Sunrise> 1¼ Miles to get good feed for our Cattle. the birds singing delightfully. I wrote & sent a letter to my Wife by Mr James H. Grieve, who will take it to Fort Pierre & forward it to P.A. Sarpy Esq[ui]re. These traders having left a Bull Boat in a Tree at the Platte. for brother Crow's Co. & Myers, they were sent ahead
our Camp start at 7.45. taking a turn to our left & in a short distance, the brethren had to grade a hill, & after ascending out of the vale again descended a valley, full of Red Sand & Red Stone may be properly called "the Red Valley". came to a very clear & pretty Creek, again graded in sides. crossed over, & took a circuitous route, passing a Pyramid of Stones almost the shape of a Sugar loaf, & having hills on our left hand about ½ Mile from the road, continuing towards N.W. until 11.45 when we halt on the Bed of a Dry Creek; finding on our route some Mountain Hare—a deal of Artimesia & many Crickets—there were an immense number where we halted. at 2.10 start again, ascended a hill. & found a very good road for several miles about ¼ Mile from the hills—saw 2 Prairie dogs—heard them bark. then crossed a Creek twice; went down it a short distance—then ascended a hill, & on our descent saw the Pioneer Expedition about 2 or 3 miles ahead ascending a hill—halt for the night <6h.0> on "R. a la Prele" [LaPrele Creek] finding plenty of Cotton Wood, Ash & Timber—plenty of feed. a Swift Current of Water about 7 yards wide. & a beautiful place[.] having travelled 1¼ [&] 10 [&] 8 [=] 19¼ Miles—Prests. Young, Kimball, Woodruff &c riding a head—the brethren clearing the road of Rocks.
shortly after we had camped, 6 men & 15 horses (reported to me) passed our Camp. some of them lately arrived from Santa Fe—report the Battalion gone to California, that Genl. Kearney had had an engagement with the Mexicans, was wounded in three places by a Spear, & was doubtful whether he would recover—&c. the Mormons at Pueblo were much dissatisfied & many of them talked of returning to the States to their families, they, are now about 15 days march from that place towards Fort Laramie
The Hunters kill 2 Antelope 1 Deer. A Beautiful day. Sterling Driggs also kill 1 Antelope 1 Deer arriving in Camp at 10 at night. I made a tracing of Fremont's Map from Fort Laramie to Deer Creek.
Thursday 10 Opened with a lovely morning. the place I had to stand guard was on a hill where I had a beautiful view & delightful Company, the Birds were singing merrily, the Country looked Green—I could see a long great distance in some directions. a solemnity prevailed near me & altogether conspired to praise their Creator. two Deer galloped by in their happy manner, & "the Brook murmured by in its course" to the Father of Waters. a few rods from the Camp was a Grave, several Stones piled on it on one of which was written the name "J. Umbree 1843". gathered up teams & at 7 20 start. crossed <"La Prele" River> taking a North—then West—& again North course. on ascending a hill, at 8 20 saw Platte River & one of the Emigation Companies about 3 miles a head. after crossing 2 small Creeks & ascending & descending 2 or 3 hills. came to a halt at 11 15 on the "Fourchee Boisee [Fourche Boise River]" to water, feed & rest our teams. some good grass on the banks of the River—also Stunted Cotton Wood & other Trees & Willows. all the Country covered with "Artimesia" of Fremont. some of our brethren call it "Southern Wood", intermixed with a slight sprinkling of tall grass. at 1 30 Camp again start in nearly a strait line, about West by North—over a good road—in about 4 miles travel <¼ past 3> arrived again on the Platte, having a steep descent, obliged to lock Wheels. on the opposite side of the River is a very pretty grove of Cotton Wood Trees; we then nearly follow the course of the Platte, on the route killing a Viper & Rattlesnake. crossed over Deer Creek. a very pretty clear stream of Water about 50 feet wide & about 20 inches deep. we then halt on the opposite Bank, or West side, at 5.30. This is the prettiest place we have yet Camped at—finding plenty of grass—a beautiful Timber spot consisting chiefly of Cotton Wood, Ash, Box Alder [Elder], Choke Cherry & Willows. two beds of Coal were found, one a few rods from Camp. the other about ¼ Mile. Specimens were brought to Camp[.] Albert Carrington bringing a Canal Coal—& G.A. Smith bringing a Bright Black Coal. several brethren went a fishing with rods & lines & caught many Fish of the White sort—many Deer & Antelope were seen on the roads[.] 4 Antelopes were killed & brought to Camp—the Whip poor will & Red Breasts enlivened the Grove. while the Twelve go to meet on the banks of the Platte Prests. Young, Kimball, Woodruff & Smith ride ahead, while six brethren follow picking the Stones off the road, & clearing a better way for the Wagons—a fine day—very warm in the evening—travelled <8¾> [+] 9 [=] 17¾ Miles
Friday 11 I wrote on a Skull directions for the next Saints, planting it near my Wagon, also planted a hill of Corn as usual—a lovely morning & birds singing in a pretty grove of Timber—Onions grow in plenty about here, & on all this days journey, also the Mustard in patches. at 7.30 Camp starts from Deer Creek & soon comes to an ugly pitch in a gulley—which we got thro' safe—follow the course of the Platte nearly in a strait line. & passing a couple of ravines on descending a hill, halt at 11.40 in the bottoms—near some Cotton Woods & plenty of mustard & Grass. I found several mushrooms on our road—at 1.30 the Camp again start, come to a rapid muddy creek about 15 or 20 feet wide & two deep—water the Cattle, cross it, & then travel on generally a level road, cross another very small Creek—ascend a hill, passing strait across it; come in sight of two of the Camps at halt ahead—when we turn down to a Cotton Wood grove, and halt at 5.30 about ½ mile from them where Prest. Richards had previously been to explore a good place for the night. Prests. Kimball, Woodruff, Benson & Smith ride ahead, & report crossing place 10 or a dozen miles from this place. hunters kill 7 Antelopes. 9¼ [+] 7¾ [=] 17½ M[iles.] The rugged bluffs have disappeared from our course, they are now more gradual, & at the top of some bluffs, about 7 miles off. patches of Snow are still left. the two Camps half a mile off, make more noise by ten times, than all our Camp put together, I clearly hear their bawling while writing this. there is a Wood pecker tapping a hollow Cotton Wood Tree, over my head. some of the men in next Camp, brought down a ball of Snow, which A.P. Rockwood held in his hand. Elder Kimball saw it—the Snow was several feet deep on the drifts
Saturday 12 a beautiful morning, Clear Sky, & Pleasant breeze—the Emigrants crossing River about us. after closing up my journal, I went to pack away the goods in my Wagon to be in readiness for starting, when George Brown said, the Captains orders were to see after the Cattle, that they were all safe. I told him I would go my self as quick as I could put the things away, which took me about 5 or 10 minutes at the outside. I then started after the Cattle, saw them all, & then met G. Brown & told him I had seen them all—he asked why I had not gone when he told me—"instead of idling & fooling away your time half an hour". I replied, "O Good God, what a lie, if you say I have been idling or fooling half an hour". he said you were idling, & if you say that again I'll strike you. he went a short distance & came back & said "did you say I lied? I replied "If you say, I either idled or fooled away half an hour for I was not 10 minutes, about the Wagon", he then struck me with his Whip. saying "I am ready for a fight, for I'd as leave fight as not". I said "you shall hear of this again. for I shall tell the Dr.", he up with his fist to strike me, saying "You may tell the Dr. as soon as you like". but I got out of the reach of his arm, & so avoided another blow. George Brown has lied to, and about the Lord's anointed many times, I have been more abused <& reviled> by him, than any other person, he has now Struck me with his whip. and I now pray that the Lord God of Israel may reward him according to his evil deeds, & punish him until he repent & forsake his evil ways.
the teams were gathered up. & 2nd Company 1st Division leads passing thro' a steep gully and hill, following the course of the Platte—cross a small Creek. & in a short distance after, the brethren made a bridge over another Creek. & continued our course until we came by an old Ford where Col[one]l Markham & brother James Case forded it, finding that the Water came near as high as the middle of the horses backs , the Camp went on. & halt on a ridge near the River at 11.45 where the River was again examined, but it would not do for us to cross. during our halt, the brethren grade the hill, so as to make a better road, to go down, & reascend the opposite side of the Gully. at 1.45 the Camp started again, taking nearly a strait line, about 4 P.M. we crossed a swift muddy Creek about 6 feet wide, & 2 or 3 deep, & halt for the night at 4 15 travelling 7¼ [+] 4 [=] 11¼ miles. the Hunters kill 4 Antelopes. Seeley Owens [Owen] also kills a Big Horned Mountain Sheep—some of the brethren bring in Specimens of Coal from a bed about 10 feet thick. also of Brown Mica, Micaceous Sandstone, Calcareous Sandstone, Whitish Compact Limestone, & Granitic Quartz.
Artemas Johnson was out all day hunting without leave, and Tunis Rappelyee went without leave to the mountains, after we had halted, to get a Snow Ball, supposing the distance only about 3 miles—neither of them having returned at dark, the brethren began to fear for their safety, as there are the appearances of many bears in this Country, Coll. Markham, went out with a detachment of, Sidney A. Hanks, John Y. Green[,] Phinehas H. Young, Harvey Pierce, John Holman, James Craig, & Samuel Fox, in search of them. the Bugle was sounded in different directions round the Camp, at distances, from ½ past 8 to ½ past 12—Guns were fired at intervals, and a large fire was kindled as guides for the brethren—at 18 minutes to 11 Rappelyee returned, & it was not 'till ½ past 12 that Johnson was found & brought back to Camp. Rappeleyee said he would not go another such a journey after a Snow Ball for 100 dollars. Johnson had got tired out & sat down on the hills. although the hills appear only about 3 miles—they are actually about 6 . there is Snow in many places on the top, & the sides are covered with Pine & cedar Trees.
I was very sick, & feeble all day, from the effects of a severe bowel complaint. Dr. administered some Composition Tea at night, to warm my System.
Sunday 13 I continued sick, in my Wagon all morning. Dr. made me more Composition Tea, & Boiled Milk & Flour, which did me good—there was a meeting in the morning Prests. Young, Kimball, & Pratt spoke. John S. Fowler took notes of the Speeches—afterwards the Twelve and Captains met at the Prests. Wagon, to take into conson [consideration] the manner of crossing the River in the best way, when the companies joined two or three together to effect that purpose—each Company thus united went with Teams to the Pineries for trees to construct their rafts—while Prests. Young, Pratt, Smith & Benson with Lorenzo Young—& Edmund Ellsworth rowing the boat, to ascertain the depth of the River, it varies from 4 to 6 feet deep—while Luke Johnson & James Case ford the River in other places on horseback—the brethren tow a yoke of Oxen over the River for the Emigrants—
The Pioneer Company of 17 Wagons & Cutter that came ahead on the 9,th have killed 3 Buffalo, very fat, 5 Antelopes and 4 Bears. the Paw of a She Bear measured 10 inches between the Spread of the Toes—7 inches long 5½ wide the Claws 2¾ in: long—will give any man an ugly clutch, or the ball of his foot would give a man a very ugly box on the ear, & may the Lord preserve me from such animals. they also saved the life of a young man belonging to the Emigrating Company—& ferried over 24 Wagons—at 1.50 each receiving in pay Flour at 2.50 per 100 lbs. Meal at 50 per Bushel, & Bacon at .6 per lb. they also did some Blacksmithing for the Emigrants—who were chiefly from Jackson, Clay, & Lafayette & Davies Counties Mo.—When the brethren first commenced ferrying for them, they were armed with Bowie Knives & Pistols. but before the brethren had finished their work—the men had put them all away and having put away their fears also, were very civil and kind to the brethren often wishing them to take Coffee & Biscuits, & when the job was finished made such a feast of Tea, Coffee, Biscuits, Butter, Meat & the good things. Mr. Bowman the leader of the Company, told Col. Markham that he was the Father of Bill Bowman, who had the Custody of Joseph Smith at the time he escaped from Missouri—his Son was rode to death on a bar of Iron, Obadiah Jennings was the leader of the mob who did it—(Jennings was also at the Hawns Mills Massacre of the Saints—) either in 1841 or 1842. the old man says it would not be good for him to see any of the mob, but he tries to keep it out of his mind, as much as possible—he also said Morgan the Sheriff is in Oregon—Brassfield & Pogue he did not know; Markham last heard they were in the South East of Missouri.
Bowman, Morgan, Mansfield & Pogue all divided alike—
The Flour & Meal was divided amongst the brethren 6 lbs of Flour and 2 lbs Meal to each person—which is quite a blessing to the Camp—
Pleasant day—East wind—at 10 min: past 7 the 3rd 10 brought a small dog raft to carry the goods over—which Prests. Young, Kimball, Richards, Smith & several brethren haul on Shore—
Monday 14 Drove by day break the 1st Co. (1st & 2nd tens) ferry over the first boat load of goods at 4 20 got setting poles trimmed & 4 Wagons unloaded sooner after 5. I was out on Guard. heard a rushing noise behind me, turned round & saw a Cloud passing over & enveloping the tops of the Mountains—in White Mist—which in a short time cleared away again—a great deal of Wild Sage, Camomile, & other herbs about the Country—and an immense quantity of Crickets & Grasshoppers—a very laborious day for the brethren who were getting over the River—23 crossed to land safely—& 2—John Pack's & the Cannon Wagon box roled over several times, breaking some of the bows, & losing several articles—the Wagons were afterwards got to shore—the goods were put across in the Cutter safe. I was better to day, & was out on guard all day, until about 4 when a very heavy thunder shower came on, the rain and hail pouring down in torrents, beating thro' most of the Wagon Covers—the river rose very rapidly[.] after the Storm subsided I hunted up & milked the Cow, & then crossed the River to the North side, the Sun about an hour high—S.E. Wind. until the Storm when it changed to the West.
Tuesday 15 A very strong West Wind, made it very difficult for the brethren to Cross over their Wagons—many horses were swam over. when as one drove was swimming over, a horse belonging to Robert Crow, having a Larryat on it got loose when the horse got his feet entangled in it, drawing his head under water, he got drowned. Dr. had all his Seeds, & bedding out of both Wagons having the benefit of the Sun shine—Joseph Scofield killed a very large Rattle snake. Dr. got the Oil out of him—after he was skinned, cut open, & his fat taken out, he writhed about, until the Dr. found his heart & cut it through with his knife—I watched the Oxen thro' the day—at one time sitting under a very large Eagle's nest—which appears about 6 feet deep and about 5 feet wide, made of dry twigs & resting upon three branches of a tall Cotton Wood Tree—many onions scattered about our Camping ground—New Moon this evening visible—
Wednesday 16 A very fine morning, South West Wind—I commenced washing my Clothes and dried same. a storm passed over the hills, South of the River, but a slight rain came to our Camp—Jacob D. Burnham gave me a Coat for which I am very thankful.
Dr. went out between 10 and 11, crossed the river, went down to the Prests. encampment and dined with him—Prest. Young had sent a four horse team, to get timber to make a good raft, in addition to the timber already on hand, which arrived about 10; when Prest. Young stript himself, and went to work with all his strength, assisted by the Dr. and the brethren—and made a first rate White Pine and White Cotton Wood raft—the Prest. also sent two 6 horse teams down the River after timber to make 2 Canoes—Dr. returned at 6 30 A Camp of 10 Wagons, 10 horses, & 33 Yoke of Oxen past up the South side of the River—& will give 1.50 for each Wagon to be ferried over, & 5.00 Extra if they are ferried over to night—there is another Camp a little below, & one about 5 miles below who wish us to ferry them over—3 men arrive in Camp, who had crossed below about 5 miles, they wish they had known of our Ferry, & they would have had their 24 Wagons crossed over by us. the Prest. will leave several men here to ferry over all the Companies that come along, until the brethren who came from Winter Quarters; after ferrying them over, then to come along with them
Very windy evening—1 Antelope killed.
Thursday 17 The Mosquitoes have been very plagu[e]y the past night; they are more numerous here than any other place on our route. Frosty night—Pleasant day[.] the brethren still continue a ferrying over the River. the Cannon was passed over about ½ past 2. when the brethren commenced ferrying over the next Camp the new raft was in operation all day & worked well—some of the brethren made two Canoes to leave with a few of the brethren who will stay till the next Camp of Saints from Winter Quarters arrive here—about 1 P.M. Prest. Young gave orders for the Pioneer Camp to come together & form the Circle—I gathered up my team & drove up both of the Drs.Wagons.
In the course of this day I travelled about 24 miles after the Oxen & was pretty tired at night, fastened the 2 yoke to the Stakes & went to bed, after dark. saw many thistles in my travels. & Onions, in flowers.
Friday 18 I was awoke by dawn of day arose—& found the Oxen loosed from the Stakes, leaving no signs of being there thro' the night. this is the 2nd time Dr. has ordered me to tie up the Cattle this week, & each time they have been turned loose in the night—I was sent on Guard, & waded thro' the Wet Grass about 5 or 6 miles to drive in a drove of strayed Cattle, among which were two that I tied up last night—it was thro' getting wet feet that brought on the Ague before; & this morning's jaunt will, I am afraid, bring it back again. a cold morning. keen W. Wind. Clear Sky—I can only see one man on guard beside myself. The brethren resumed crossing the Emigrant Camp: gathered up teams—when I with Rockwood to receive pay from the two Camps already crossed—kept an acct. while Rockwood weighed & received it. afterwards Capt Ashworth invited us to breakfast with him, on Bacon, Warm Biscuits, & light fried Biscuits—good Coffee with Sugar—& then milk making a good breakfast from a Woman's Cooking is a remembrance of past times, & renews the desire for such times to come again—in a short time afterwards Col. Rockwood & T.B. crossed the River in a Boat to receive the pay from Capt Kerl's Company—at ¼ to 2 assisted to put on the new raft, which went across well. then went to look at a Cow which we rece[ive]d with other things from Capt Kerl's Co. & recrossed the river with the provisions about ½ past 3. Pleasant day. the brethren make 5 Wharves in different places—besides crossing teams—Dr. dictated inst[ruct]ions to Thomas Grover & Co. who were going to stay here—after which Prest. Young took them & a few others a short distance from Camp, gave them good inst[ruct]ions & then preached a Sermon on Plurality of Wives—would not Council Glines to stay, & those who were staying voted that they did not want Glines to stay.
Received of Christopher Ashworth's Co.
1 Bushel of Beans, 1.25
1 Bushel of Beans, 1.20
1½ Bushel of Meal, .75
153 lbs Flour—2½—, 3.82½
Discount, .25 = 6.80
½) 14 Wagons at 1.50
7 [=] 21.00
Received of Captn. Smith's Company
5½ Bushel meal, 2.75
916 lbs Flour at 2½, 22.90
Sack of Beans, .31
18 wagons at 1.50
Received of Captn. Kerl's Company
226 lbs Flour @2½ [=] 5.65
92 lbs Shorts @ 1¼ [=] 1.15
117 Soap @.10 [=] 11.70
6 Plugs Tobacco @25 [=] 1.50
20 Wagons at 1.50
Total 78.00 from 3 Camps
Lorenzo Young for Iron, Cash 2.80>br>Ed. Ellsworth, night work, Cash .75
Luke Johnson, night work, Cash .75
Melen [Millen] Atwood, night work, Cash .50, Flour .61
A. Gibbons, night work, Cash .60
J. Norton, night work, Cash .30
J.S. Higbee, night work, Cash .75
Discount, Cash .25
[Indented] B. Young .10
[Total Cash] 6.80 [-]
H.C. Kimball, Tobacco .50 Flour 167, Soap .27
B. Young, Tobacco .75 Flour 96
John S. Fowler, Flour 25, Meal 20
[Total Tobacco,] 1.50
W. Richards, Soap 9
O. Pratt, Soap 5
E. T. Benson, Soap 5
G.A. Smith, Soap 5
W. Woodruff, Soap 5
P.H. Young, Soap 5
J. Tanner, Flour (167) Soap 5
A. Everett, Flour 95, Soap 6
John Y. Green, Soap 6
O.P. Rockwell, Flour 100
[Total Soap,] 118
Hanks & Fox, Flour 68
Zebedee Coltrin, Flour 13
H.C. Kimball, Meal 2 Bush[el]
Jacob Weilar, Meal 1½ Bush[el]
J.S. Holman, Beans 2 Peck
Rockwood & Scofield, Flour 41, Beans 2 Peck
Lewis Barney, Flour 33
Andrew Gibbons, Flour 18, Meal ¾ Bush[el]
Norman Taylor, Flour 18 lb
James Craig, Meal 1½ Bush[el]
Brigham Young, Flour 894<401> Meal 1¼ Bush[el], Beans 5 Pecks
[Totals] Flour1788 1295, Meal 7 B[ushel], Beans 9 P[eck]
Prest. Young, 2 Cows 17.00
Prest. Young, Honey 1.00
Prest. Young, 92.00 Shorts 1.15
Epitome delivered out
1295 lbs. Flour, 32.37½
92 Shorts 1.15
7 B[ushel]. Meal 3.50
2¼ B. Beans 2.81
118 lbs Soap, 11.80
2 Cows 17.00
Increase on Soap .10 factions 3½ = 13 ½
Saturday June 19, 1847 I made copy of instructions to Grover & Co. who are going to stay. Prests. Young & Richards sign both copies also Grover, Johnson, Davenport, Empey, Stewart, Pomeroy, Higbee, Harmon, & Ellsworth copy on file—others given to Luke Johnson—Eric Glines stays without Council—Camp starts at [blank space] ascend some hills to the right—cross a large plain—then descend the hill—see a Camp ahead—halt opposite "Red Buttes" about ¾ hour, no water, pretty good feed—hitch up—go half a mile & Water Cattle—then start at [blank space] over gravel road, leaving a row of hills on the left—come to a natural wall—descend a gully—by zig zag uneven road & very bad—turn to the right[.] halt in a hollow at [blank space]—bad water, saline deposit—scanty grass—no wood but some Artimesia—I ascend steep hill with Professor Pratt, find Green & divers colored Stones—fine view of the Country, it being a very steep high hill—O.P. Rockwell killed 1 Buffalo. travelled N.W. then S.W. <11¼ A.M.> 10¼ P.M. [=] 21½ Miles—Wind N.W. Prest. Young told me "I had proved faithful—I should enjoy better health, & this journey would prove as good as a little fortune to me." we then examined Fremont's map. 1 Deer & 3 Antelopes killed—at night used Sage to cook with.
Sunday 20 Several Cattle getting mixed, orders given to gather up at day break. & start at 5 17 over a good road[.] about 3 miles halt at 7 4 in road—by clear steamlet and good grass—see Camp ahead—Dr. cooks breakfast by Artimesia fire. Many Thistles—fine bed of mint—start at 10 10[.] Prests. Young & Kimball ahead on horses—thro' narrow vale—ascend a hill—pass Willow Springs at 11 20 clear, beautiful water—where Cattle were watered. again ascend hill—on the summit see Snow on Mountains—the Sweetwater—Rocks, Hills, & Plain—Prests. Young, Kimball & Richards examine Map—then descend the hill—one place very steep—Cross several small runs of Water, Slight grass—halt at 2 50 for dinner near a Creek & good grass start at 4 56 over generally level road—cross small River, crooked & rapid. 3 yards wide the mark of a Bears Paw, 10 inches long—in sand—Ball 7 inch Claws 3 inch. the Sun set behind the Mountains. Camp halt at 7 40 on a hill, by a Stream & good feed—saw many Flowers & Thistles, Artimesia, all over the Country—Sandy road. Wind S.E. Clear day—I was sent on Guard, till late at night. Elder Woodruff & Thomas Brown absent from Camp, fearing that they might be lost, a large fire of Sage was kindled & the Cannon fired at 12 o'clock, to let them know our whereabouts—traveled <3¾ before breakfast> 9 noon halt <7¼ Night> [total] 20 miles[.] Warm day—Sandy road.
Monday 21 Fine morning—Clear Sky—Woodruff & Brown not returned cause much anxiety for their safety—at 8 45 Camp starts—Prests. Young & Kimballs Wagons going first go back to the road. then S. along a level Sandy Road, pass a big rock—go between two Lakes, & saw a bed of Saline water—the Gad Flies begin to plague oxen—over a small Lake to the left, of Saleratus—sent by Brown to get a sample—which Sister Lorenzo Young tried with Sour Milk also Vinegar it being better than the Saleratus they had from the States. brother Young & G. Brown returned to the Lakes to fill her Buckets[.] I drove both teams the while[.] they returned to camp loaded—halt on the Sweetwater at 12 o'clock—bro Young having tried the Saleratus to make light Cakes & answering well. many brethren return to the Lake to fill their Buckets—I am thankful to the Lord that I have been enabled to do so much good. El[der]. Woodruff & Brown returned to Camp. I went to the top of Independence Rock, found Prests. Young, Richards, Smith, Woodruff & others, who went over & round it. Prest. Young gave orders while on the Rock to gather up teams—when Camp start at 2.50 a smart Shower passed over. then pass Independence Rock, saw many names written on it. Cross the Sweetwater <6 rods wide>. a very crooked River—ascend hill to the Road. saw another Camp in our rear—Pass "Devil's Gate". Prests. Young, Kimball, Woodruff, Pratt, Smith. brother Little & others go inside one portion of it. I and several others then clambered upon the hill. saw two places where men had camped on the top, also blood near the houses of Pine brush. the tracks of Bear—Pine, Cedar, Gooseberry & other Trees. very romantaic Spot—descend on opposite side—altogether a romantic Spot—the rocks overhang the River 4, 5, or 600 feet high & make a man dizzy to look up. the roar of Water deafening—Camp halts on West side at 6.30 near a Creek <7½> [+] 7¾ [=] 15¼ Miles. Warm day.
Tuesday 22. I was called up to Guard at 3 A.M. by the Drs. orders—guarded Cattle until horn blew to gather up—a good place, plenty of grass. Many Flowers, Dandelions, Thistles, Mosquitoes and much Grease Wood—also many Snipes, & an immense quantity of crickets. (I gave up the Journal, to Dr. as he s[ai]d if I must Guard, the Camp must do their own writing. I took it up again on 26th to record notes, & do as well as I can, & try my best to fulfil what the Prest. wanted me for; but I have so many Commanders; it is hard for me to do every thing) Camp start at 7.15. Cross the Creek, the most crooked I ever saw. about 12 feet wide & Swift[.] Prests. Young & Kimball ahead. Warm morning. Clear Sky. very Sandy road—grade two places—make a bridge—cross another Creek about 8 <20> feet wide. travel over some beautiful prairie. then over uneven road, thro' Grease Wood, & past much Saline deposit[.] halt on the Sweetwater at 11.50[.] good grass—Bathed in river. A Clear Sky & travel thro' romantic scenery. Camp of 10 wagons pass us. report Columbus Dustin from Morgan Co Illinois, drowned at the Lower Ferry. also several other Camps behind them—good grass at this place. Lorenzo Young broke the Axle Tree of his Wagon this A.M. Prests. Young, Woodruff & Benson return to his assistance. Camp start at 2.15. ascend a steep, long Sand hill—descend it on opposite side by 3 steep places—pass another Saleratus Lake. grade the hill to a creek 5¾ M from start. then cross it. after another hill—pass the Camp at halt on Sweetwater—cross another small creek, & halt near a high, steep hill at 8 o clock[.] a pretty place, beautiful grass, & Camping spot. Warm day—dusty road. 10¾ [+] <10> [=] 20¾
<1847 June 27 Moses Harris informs us, that if we come from the States in Winter, & the ground covered with Snow when we "arrive 3 miles above "Devil's Gate" on the Sweetwater, look to your left; you will see an open space in the mountains, go thro' it. then let your course be West, till you top the hill out of the Great Plains—then look to the South and you will see a Square Rock. leave it to the left—go on, and cross Green River—then let your course be West to Bridgers Fort, by the Road." we can travel a long Snake River, almost in Winter. find grass, little Snow, & free from Indians.>
June 23 I bathed before Sunrise with bro. Little. clear sky. warm morning. Camp start at 7.25. pass a Grave "Matilda Crowley B. July 16, 1830. D. July 7. 1846". See Rocky Mountain covered with Snow—cross a Shallow Creek 6 feet wide—Prests. Young & Kimball Wagons going first—they on horses—over Sandy Road, but good travelling—at 10.30 came to River— & halt at 11.10 on good grass, near bold rocks with a few stunted trees on—here were the remains of some Indian Wicka ups. many Mosquitoes. some mint—much Flag. at noon commenced being Cloudy. start at 1.15 leaving the River, going thro' very heavy Sand. a Deer passes Camp a few yards before Drs. team—very bold rocks—travel thro' much Grease Wood, Artimesia, but very little grass. get a fine view of the Wind River Chain of mountains. came to the River at 4.43 & halt at 5.45 in good grass[.] a Warm day. Slight Wind in afternoon from S. travelled <8½ A.M.> 8½ P.M. [=] 17 miles
Thursday 24 Camp start at 6.5—I was very sick in bed. bro Little driving my team. [.] pass 10 Wagons at noon, resting in no wood, water or grass along the road, which was Sandy yet good travelling—descend the hill & Camp on the Sweetwater at 3.35[.] a Company of Emigrants crossing the River at the time—travelled 17¾ miles—here we find plenty of grass, water, & wood. the Co. of 10 Wagons camped below us—a Warm day—the Sweetwater Mountains are disappearing, the Rocky Mountains coming into plainer view—this evening while driving up the Cattle—John Holman.carrying his Gun, it accidentally went off—shooting Prest. Young's "John" Horse in the belly. he lingered till night when he died. this is the 3rd horse killed thro' accidents. Prests. Richards, & Woodruff laid hands on me, to rebuke my sickness. bro Woodruff, mouth.
Friday 25 Camp called up by day break, several brethren cross the river to fetch up our Cattle that had mixed with the Missourians herd—when they started—we hitched up and started at 6.45 with a pleasant morning but a dusty road , the wind being ahead the other Camp of 10 Wagons & 33 yoke of Oxen following in our trail. Camp crossed the Island in the Sweetwater and then ascended a high hill. descending again to the River, then took a bend to the right over a steep hill of sand—the dust flying in a perfect cloud & almost suffocating—crossed two small Sloughs, then continued up the Valley by the river side, until we crossed a small beautiful Creek when Camp came to a halt on a beautiful bottom of excellent grass—with plent;y of wood, and surrounded by high hills—at 11.15—here we found plenty of dandelions, White flowers called Pickpockets—Onions—Gooseberries—a Strawberry Vine & a Mineral Spring [.] leave this place at 1.30 continuing thro' a very narrow vale, at the end of it, pass Capt. Ashworth's & Smiths Companies at halt—when we ascended a long steep hill, finding many Daisies which was a pleasant sight for me. brother Wordsworth brought me a ball of Snow which I ate; quite a treat for the Anniversary of my Wedding day—on arriving at the top saw 3 small lakes on the plain on our right—Dr.Richards clearing away the Stones out of the Road—then travelled over a level, hard road, for several miles—cross a Creek & halt on the banks of another Creek where we find many Strawberries in flower—G.A. Smith brought in a branch of the "Aspen Poplar" from the grove on the hill, & reports it a beautiful grove—White Clover in flower. but little grass & form in Circle at 7.15[.] one of the brethren brought into Camp two solid lumps of Ice, gave one lump to the Dr. and Sister Lorenzo Young gave him about ‚Öì lb of Butter, (the largest lump the Dr. has had for about 3 months) which he put some Ice to—making it hard and cold—and having some light bread made, had a perfect feast in the Wilderness. a brother also brought the Dr. a fine Specimen of Sandstone Grit which he brought from a bed while ascending the Steep hill—the best that has been seen on our journey. the Wind River Chain in view several times during the day, covered with Snow. a very cold day, which caused the Warmer Clothing to be put on by the brethren[.] 8¾ A.M. 11½ P.M. Total 20¼ Miles.
Saturday 26 Severe Frost in the night. Ice in the Buckets of Water. a Pail of milk in bro. Rockwood's Wagon frozen solid—Morning Clear and Cold. fetched up Cow, & in going after the Oxen saw many Strawberry Vines in flower. Gooseberries—also Willows on the banks of the River. got Wet—kicked three times by Cow while milking—assisted brother Little cooking. Camp starts at 7.40 pass 3 small Groves on left, one on the right—ascend some gentle hills—on a Sudden came to the Sweetwater in a deep ravine—with many Willows & Shrubs on its banks—cross it about 15 yards wide—ascend a hill—see another Camp in our rear, continue over a very good road, & descend a gentle inclined Plane—to the main branch of the Sweetwater—cross it. some of the Wagon boxes had to be raised higher, the Water being deep & swift—cross it, & halt on the South bank at 12.50—plenty of grass, wood & water. here was a very large Snow Drift, about 10 feet deep. the boys & girls Snowballing each other. the Dr. & I had a regular turn at it for some minutes, being a rarity in the longest days. Eric Glines returned to Camp, left the brethren at the Ferry, well on Wednesday morning, the river had fallen about 13 inches. & the Ferry was removed about 8 miles lower. camp starts at 2.30[.] ascend a very steep hill, travel over a level gravelly road—seeing many Antelopes, on our route, also Daisies, Pinks, Onions, Artemesia—many Curious & Clear Stones. had a Warm & Dusty afternoon—White Clouds flying in the air—a Pleasant day's journey. turned off the road, to halt again on the Sweetwater at 7 PM—a good camp ground. travel <11 A.M.> 7¾ P.M. [=] 18¾ Miles. Prests. Young, Kimball & Woodruff riding a head. O. Pratt, G.A. Smith & others saw a Co. returning to the States. Camped about 6 miles further. & staid with them all night. reading Oregon & California Papers, & conversing all night. & kindled a fire as a Signal where we are at Camp
Sunday 27 Fine morning. Clear Sky—the Ox teams start first this morning at 8.20[.] shortly after met a Company of 8 Emigrants with Mules returning from Oregon to the States with Pack mules—send letters by them—Pass the Dividing Ridge—descend West side of the South Pass. at the Springs met Mr. Harris, a mountaineer, where G.A. Smith & O. Pratt had staid all night reading the Oregon Newspapers & conversing all night—intended staying here but the place being very miry. had to pursue our journey. went to a place where there were many small Fish, but very little grass & halt at noon—the Artimesia 5 or 6 feet high. and very thick. Start again at 2.40 over a level, barren, Sage Country with but little grass, over a gravel road, and halt for the night on a bed of Quick sand, having travelled <6¼> [+] 9 [=] 15 ¼ Miles[.] a Warm and dusty day. Mr. Moses Harris encamped with us & lent 7 Oregon Papers to read. Ezra T. Benson taken very sick, Anniversary of the martyrdom of Joseph & Hyrum Smith.
Monday 28 The Cattle not being fond of the Wire grass, & Rushes, scattered abroad—were gathered together a second time & yoked up. Mr. Crow's Bull gores an Ox in the bowels until they protrude, his bulls are Savage Creatures, having gored many of the oxen—Mr. Harris trading his Skins for Guns, Caps, Lead [..arts] &c[.] he partook of breakfast with Prest. Young. Camp start at 7.45 & left him. Prests. Young & Kimball riding ahead on the Boat Wagon—came to a Cross Road where Dr. Richards puts up a guide board to Oregon & California[.] we turned the left road in a S.W. direction. over a level road—go round a Sand Bluff on our right—travel over a Sandy Road, seeing much Artimesia. Daisies & Dog Daisies & Camp on the "Little Sandy" at 1.30 a deep, rapid, muddy stream of Water—with many Willows, Gooseberry & Rose Trees on its banks. pretty good grass—a Warm morning—blue Sky with small White Round Clouds floating in the Air. a Dusty morning—many yellow, and blue flowers—also mosquitoes. see the Bear River mountains covered with Snow—Father Case wades the River to ascertain best crossing place—start at [blank space] cross the River about 3 rods wide & deeper than the Axle Trees. in about ½ an hour after met Mr. James Bridger with 2 men going to Fort Laramie. called a halt, looked for a good Camping place & came to a halt for the night at [blank space]—Mr. Bridger returned to Camp with us—& in the evening held a meeting in the Grove (see TBs minutes) he supped with the Prest. E. T. Benson sick. I found a petrified piece of Cotton Wood by the road Side—Artemus Johnson carried it to Dr.who buried it near the bank of Little Sandy—right hand side on our return journey <13½ A.M.> [+] 1¾ P.M. [=] 15¼ Miles
Tuesday 29 Immediately after Sun rise, Prest. Young came to me to write an instruction for James Bridger to take to Captn. Grover—which B.Y. signed & gave Mr Bridger. after a short conversation Mr Bridger left the Camp—gather up teams & start at 7.30—Prests. Young & Kimball ahead on the Boat Wagon—a S.W. course over a Sandy road. thro' dwarf Artimesia. See the Bear River Mountains tipt with Snow— Butter Cups, Daisies & Flags. a Warm morning[.] Clear Sky[.] halt on "Big Sandy" at 10 45—good Camping—plenty of Willows & Artimesia—I was sent to gather Dandelions, then pick them. this instead of writing a Journal—Camp starts at 1 25—Cross the river about 6 rods wide—then, generally level road, some hills. Stony road in portions—Prest. Young a head as usual—returned & directed the brethren to quicken their pace as we had a long distance yet to travel to a good Camping ground—descended the hills—then a level road[.] Sun set behind the hills. on the bottom, a great dust from Saleratus—smelt very disagreeable, continued on till we arrived at the River at 9 5 having travelled <6¾ A.M.> [+] 17 P.M. [=] 23¾ Miles—Morning Warm—P.M. Cloudy. Evening cold.
June 30 Clear Sky—Very Pleasant morning. handsome Camp ground—some large Cotton Wood Trees—the largest timber since we left the N. Fork Ferry—some Shrubs—a Wide River & plenty of grass—Camp starts at 8. very warm over a level gravel road. barren Country. leave some bluffs on our right hand[.] continue over a gravel & Pebbly Road in a S.W. course until we halt at Green River at 11.40 having travelled 8 miles—here is a good Camping ground, tolerable grass, plenty of Cotton Wood & other Trees, largest we have seen for upwards of 200 miles. Prest. Young gave orders to Tarl[e]ton Lewis to build a raft to ferry over the First Division of the Camp—Prest. Kimball also gave orders for a raft to ferry over the second Division. Lewis completed his before dark. about 3 P.M. brother Samuel Brannan arrived from San Francisco bringing intelligence from that part of California—also files of "The California Star"—also that the "Mormon Battalion" were at Pueblo de los Angeles well in health, but having had a hard journey, most of the Animals being worn out—he gave a description of his visit to the unfortunate Cannibal Emigrants from Independence Missouri; who were at Truckers lake & neighborhood—also of his route to this place—I have Eight sections of maps to Copy, besides bringing up the arrears of Notes in this Journal—and yet I was sent out on Guard—in running after the Animals, sweating, & then sitting down to map—brought on sickness again. I write this to show the difficulties I have to encounter even in doing this fragment of a Journal. several of the brethren are taken sick, with Fevers—pains in the head & back. [blank space] Warm day—Mosquitoes very troublesome
Thursday 1 A fine warm morning—the brethren commenced ferrying Wagons on the River, but were obliged to desist in the afternoon on account of Strong Wind. only ferried over 9 of the First Division & 1 of the Second Division. Total 10. the raft for 2nd Division being too heavy, had to cut it to pieces & make a new one—most of the Cattle were swam over. I was sick in bed from over exertion—Dr. gave me orders not to do the like again for play [any] man, or Saint, King, Lord, or Devil. I was warmed up by Tea & chewing Ginger Root—William Clayton, Ezra T. Benson, G. A. Smith, G. Wardle—and others sick.
Friday 2 Continued Ferrying the Wagons over the River—commenced at daylight[.] Passed over Prests. Young, Kimball, & Richards, & 44 other Wagons—total 47[.] I was ordered to plant a patch of Corn, Dr. came & assisted at a few hills—planted 3 patches of Early Yellow, & White Corn. crossed over the River about 11 A.M. Warm day. Cloudy in evening. Slight wind.
E.T. Benson, G. A. Smith, W. Clayton, T.Bullock, G. Wardle, M. Ivory & several others sick. The Mosquitoes in great numbers, very plaguing.
at 2 P.M. Prests. Young, Kimball, Richards, Woodruff, Pratt, Smith & Benson with Lorenzo Young, T.Bullock, & Samuel Brannan met in the Grove—and decided to send messengers to the Camps in our rear, & Pilot them thro'—when O.P. Rockwell, P.H. Young, Eric Glines, & Geo. Woodward were chosen for that purpose. each of the Twelve were instructed to write their views, & hand them to the Dr., previous to his writing the letter.
Saml. Brannan stated that he had a large box of Doctrine & Covenants—also Pratts Almanacs & other Mormon Books—but refused to sell one, altho' he had had more than 50 applications[.] there are 7 months rainy Season & 5 dry in California—the dry Season commencing in April—very Windy. Barley no hull on it. don't cultivate Oats—they grow wild. Clover as high as the horses Belly. Wild Horses scattered all over the Plains—Geese in abundance—Salmon in the River San Joaquin Oysters very small—no Lobsters, Crabs, Whales & but few small Fish in the bay. the meeting then adjourned—saw a heap of Nine Buffalo Skulls in one place—
Saturday 3 Cold morning. I was some better. brethren ferry over 19 Wagons, when a very strong West Wind arose—Prests. Young & Kimball ride out to look out another camp ground—immediately on their return, it commenced raining; thundered & lightned several times. gathered up teams. Camp starts at 3.15 & removes down by the River Banks, to a good Camp ground, 3 miles, halt at [blank space] Dr. wrote a letter to Elders Amasa Lyman & C.C. Rich, which I copied. Wm. Clayton made out a table of distances between Creeks & Camp grounds. T.B. made out a Synopsis of Journal form Fort John to Green River. then combined both together, a troublesome job. Prest. Kimball said it could not be bettered. the Twelve met in the Drs. Wagon, when both papers were read to them, & observations made in the Margin—then a meeting was held (dark) to find out who wanted to return to the next Camps & Pilot them thro'. when Phinehas H. Young, Aaron Farr, George Woodward, Rodney Badger & Eric Glines (5) agreed to go. Prest Young lent them his light Wagon, & 2 horse harness. I then commenced copying the condensed table of distances—sat up as long as I could keep awake.
Wm Clayton very sick, the other brethren some better,
Passed a Mosquito Manufactory, immense swarms of them. Warm P.M. West breeze.
Prest. Young with a number of others, went to make a good road about ½ mile beyond our Camp Ground. so as not to stop on Monday morning.
Sunday 4 Arose by day break, to continue copying the condensed Synopsis & table of distances, which I completed for Elders Amasa Lyman & C.C. Rich. signed it officially, and obtained signatures of Prests. Young &. Richards—gave both to P.H. Young[.] the 5 brethren left Camp, at [blank space] accompanied by Prests. Young, Kimball, Richards, Woodruff and several others—they arrived at the Ferry about ½ past 11 and met 13 of the Battalion, who had placed their goods on the raft, preparatory to ferrying over the River—it was decided that one of them should return with our 5 men. the Presidency & brethren came to camp at ¼ past 2—formed a line. Prest. Young spoke a few words; the Camp gave 3 Cheers for their return, when he proposed glory to God, for their safe return crying out "Hosanna, Hosanna, Hosanna, Give glory to God and the Lamb. Amen" then dismissed, to receive congratulations of the brethren.
A meeting in Camp all morning, led by the Bishops—singing, praying & speaking. [blank space] An Ox poisoned by eating some Weeds belonging to bro: Crow about 4 Prests. Young, Kimball, Richards, Woodruff, Smith, Pratt, & Benson with T.Bullock met in the Drs. Wagons, and had read a letter from Amasa Lyman also one from Captn. James Brown, Commander of the Battalion from Pueblo. and Councilled thereon.
Brothers Clayton, Egan, & Fowler very sick. remainder getting better. Clear, Warm day. Mosquitoes troublesome—West breeze. Prest. Young counselled bro. Brannan how to proceed in California, for the best.
A full belly seldom thinks of the hungry—Proverbs
Monday 5 Not having had any sleep. brought on a severe head ache—went after Cattle, hitch up and start at 8 A.M. down the River banks about 3 miles where we Watered the Cattle—left the River, ascended a steep Pebbly hill to a level Table Land, then about S.W. round a steep Bluff on the left of the road. descend the hill, to another valley came to a steep bank of a dry Creek. go up it ¼ of a Mile, down opposite side. Prest. Young orders a new & better road made across it. saves going round it. which was done—dust flying in two contrary directions—shortly after a slight portion of a heavy thunder shower passed over us—a level S.S. road to the River, and halt on the banks of "Black's [Blacks] Fork" at 4. 45 tolerable grass, best Camping spot since start. 20 miles. some Shrubby trees on the banks. Tallow Weed plenty—Warm morning. Cloudy in afternoon—rain in distance in several places. a gravel. and a sandy-dusty road all day. [blank space] chiefly W. Wind. see Prickly Pear in Flower—some yellow, others Red.
Several of the brethren continue sick
<12 of the Battalion travelled with us this day[:] William Walker returned with the Five brethren at the Ferry.>
Thomas S. Williams, Sergeant
Joel J. Terrill
Andrew J. Shupe
Tuesday 6 A clear Sky, pleasant morning—gather up teams, and start at 7 40 thro' a gulley—then a S. by W. course for about three miles, when crossed "Hams [Ham's] Fork" about four rods wide; some Willows and Grass, a pretty good Camping Place—went then up a hill in a strait line towards some high bluffs[.] in about 2 miles crossed "Black's Fork" about 8 rods wide in a slanting direction <(plenty of Artimesia here)> continued over a tolerable good road, but very barren—saw many dog daisies and many beautiful blue flowers, also red flowers—go round the high bluff in the form of a semi circle; leaving it on our left, then descend to the bottom again in a strait line, until we reach Black's Fork which we again cross in a slanting direction about 8 rods wide when we camp on the West side, in a pretty good Camping place, tolerable grass— many Thistles; & Mountain Flax the best we have seen on our route—travelled 18¼ Miles without stopping—halt at 4.20—hard gravel road—Dr. Richards sick in his Wagon. all the rest of the sick better.
Wednesday 7 Strong Wind from NW early in the morning. Cold. in gathering up teams see plenty of beautiful Flax—Currants &c start at 25 min: to 8 in a Westerly direction. towards the North end of the Snowy Mountains. in 2½ Miles again crossed "Black's Fork"[.] plenty of grass, flax, & pretty flowers. in about 2½ Miles further forded a branch slanting downwards. swift current. then rise a hill leaving some Bluffs on our right. about noon we halted on tolerable grass on the banks of a Creek: at 20 min: to 2 again start over an uneven pebbly road. turning round a bluff on our left hand saw 9 Wicka ups in a beautiful vale, also many horses grazing in a beautiful Camp ground[.] cross over 4 Creeks of clear water, running very rapid over large pebble bottom, halt for a short time near Fort Bridger. then pass it <& 6 more Wicka ups> [wickiups], crossing over three other small streams. & halt in a beautiful vale, where grass is "knee deep, and deeper," Water very Clear, excellent mill scites [sites], Timber plenty, the Scene lovely, & delightsome to look at. several Speckled Trout were caught which did my eyes good to look at once more. travelled <9 A.M.> [=] 8¾ P.M. [=] 17¾ [.] some parts of the road very dusty.
Bridgers Fort is 397 Miles from Fort John. there are two Log houses & a large pen for horses made of upright poles, is situated 41° 19'. 13" N, Latitude by Professor Pratts observation & 6665 feet above the level of the Sea.
Thursday 8 Camp staid here all day. several brethren go to make trades with the French & Indians, but few succeeded, as they could not obtain sufficient for their goods. I went out with Serjt. Thos. Williams. & worked my passage back on Erastus Snow's mare on bare bones. a Warm day—Dr. dictated a letter to Amasa Lyman, which TB read to Prests. Young & Kimball. two alterations were made, I then copied it—also wrote a letter to Robert Campbell in Winter Quarters giving the results of our journey so far. news from Battalion & San Francisco &c which Dr. sent by Col[one]l Findley, who was going to the States—made a copy of Hastings directions from Bridgers Fort to the Settlement in California[.] also a map of the route—returning the original to brother Brannan—
In the evening George Mills prepared a charge against Andrew Gibbons for Assault & abuse. (minutes on file) it appeared both used abusive language. after close both begged to be forgiven. it was then voted that we pursue our journey in the morning. Serjt. Williams seized a horse belonging to Tim Goodale, for a mule stolen by one of his men at Pueblo. gave a receipt to Goodale, settling the business, leaving Goodale to recover from his man—Mr Goodale appeared very anxious that no other man should come upon his man for it—the receipt satisfied with him.
Mosquitoes very troublesome. the sick getting better.
Prests. Young & Kimball traded; & got Hunting Shirts, Pantaloons &c & H.C. K.. got 20 good Skins to cover their boys with.
Friday 9 Elder Brannan & Serjt. Williams, return to Battalion with the letter to Amasa Lyman which was signed by Prests. Young & Richards. the other brethren from Battalion go on with us—Camp started at 8 A.M. crossed the beds of 3 Creeks also many Gooseberries, Buttercups, Willows, Roses, Meadow But[t]es, Pink & Blue Flowers also several beds of mint: (Prest. Young gave the horse back to Goodale in the neatest, quickest, prettiest way possible; for which Goodale expressed his thankfulness to "Capt. Young") ascended a steep hill, having on plenty of Cedar Trees, & Artimesia on it. going in a Westerly direction towards a Square But[t]e; went to the foot of it, leave it on our left. came to a Spring & small Stream of Water, (6¼) where we halt, & water our Cattle. a tolerable Camping ground. then ascended a hill & descended to a small Creek—in a gully. then ascended a very steep & long hill. gathered some Poplar—went on a bank of Snow, made two Snow balls, a refreshing bite at this time of year. many Flowers at this place. continued on the top of the hill some distance thro' the Artimesia, then descended by a ravine, where we had to lock being very steep—into a beautiful valley—having grass on the sides of the hills—cross "Muddy Creek" about 3 P.M. a beautiful clear stream of Water, with a Pebbly bottom & Camp on the West side at [blank space] travelled 13 miles 6¼ <6¾>. a pleasant day—this is an entire change in Country—the Grass, or rather Wild Wheat is about 4 feet high, which the Cattle like. plenty of short grass, Willows, Flax & Flowers. a pretty Camp Ground. W. Woodruff taken very sick today. made another Copy of "The Word & Will of the Lord" for "Prest. Brigham Young", he was very much pleased, & told me to make a copy for myself. several beds of Excellent Grindstone found by El. Carrington who brought in 5 Streamers. [blank space] the brethren singing hymns for the Prest. a delightful evening.
Saturday 10 A beautiful morning—El. Woodruff much better. TB unwell[.] assist Cooking &c instead of writing, as usual; Gather up teams and start at 8 oclock going along by the river side, a Copperas Spring on the left hand, where we ascended the hill—passed thro' some Artimesia, descended, turned to the right. had to halt & make a new road thro' a deep pitch in the Mountain—leaving on our right a high bold bluff. again have to cut away part of a hill to descend, Prests. Young & Kimball assisting the brethren. made a road wide enough for the Wagons to pass; locked wheels, & descended into a beautiful valley with good grass. on the hills Cedar Trees. then took a sudden turn to the left up another valley with plenty of grass, leaving at the high bluff[.] pass up some distance & halt opposite a "Gunpowder Spring" the Water bubbling up clear—tasting like Gunpowder & smelling like rotten Eggs—a little further was a Copperas Spring—staining the soil a deep red for some distance. Mr Myers caught a young "War Eagle" & brought it into Camp to look at. it measured 6 feet between the tips of its wings. a little after 3 start again up the valley, pass over a small hill—& then ascend the "dividing ridge" by a zigzag road. Elder Pratt reports [blank space] feet above the level of the Sea—A She Bear & two Cubs were seen by brother Cloward going over a high hill on our left hand—descended by two steep pitches, almost perpendicular, which on looking back from the bottom looks like jumping off the roof of a house to a middle story then from the middle story to the ground. & thank God there was no accident happened. Prests. Young & Kimball cautioned all to be very careful, & locked the Wheels of some Wagons themselves. it was a long, steep, & dangerous descent. then went thro' a valley, hemmed in by high mountains. travel to the end, which was the foot of a steep, high, bold bluff. then took a very sudden short to the left, round another point. ascend a hill thro' Artimesia, W. Clayton put down "30 Miles to Fort Bridger" near a large bed of Onions. continued to ascend the hill, & then a long gradual descent, thro' Artimesia—between high bluffs. crossed a shallow Creek about 10 feet wide, & Camp in West bank at ¼ to 8 having travelled <9 A.M.> [+] 9 P.M. [=] 18 miles. here is a Clear Cold Spring. which runs thro' the centre of our Circle
A Pleasant day—a mountainous days journey.
Sunday 11 Ice on the Water Buckets—a Pleasant morning—Mr Miles Goodier Camp [came] into Camp. he lives at Weber River. gives a very favorable account of the Country—has a garden planted with all kinds of vegetables—he reports Mr. Wells an Englishman living on his place—after conversing with Prest. Young, he went with bro Little, Matthews & Brown to shew them a new road & nearer. he made a map of the roads & gave it the brethren. at the foot of the mountains, near the Camp was discovered a Sulphur Spring—having flour of Sulphur floating on the top of it—and about 1½ miles on the South road was discovered a tar Spring, where several brethren take their tar buckets to fill, to grease their Wagons with—it burned bright like oil. here are Pure Water Springs. a Creek. a Sulphur Spring. & a Pitchy or Greasy Spring within 1½ Miles of Camp—it appears as if Nature herself had separated her different productions for the especial use of the Persecuted Saints on their journey. as I lay in my Wagon sick I overheard several of the brethren, murmuring about the face of the Country. altho' it is very evident, to the most careless observer, that it is growing richer & richer every day; grass grows luxuriant. Cedars are beginning to flourish; Pines are seen on the mountains, Cotton Wood Trees on the River banks—Flowers are getting very numerous—herbage is getting richer all over the Country—& the Artimesia disappearing—
After dusk, the brethren were called together, & decided to take the west or northern route which Miles Goodier spoke of—a Warm P.M.
to me this has been the stillest day I have had—being sick—neither speaking or being spoken to. the brethren had a singing meeting this P.M.
Monday 12 A cool, cloudy morning, threatening rain—continued sick in my Wagon all day, Horace Thornton driving for me. Camp start at ¼ past 7—taking the right hand road—pass thro' a bed of Willows—ascend a steep hill & descend to Bear River which we crossed, a rapid stream about 6 rods wide, water up to the Axle Trees. Plenty of Cotton Wood on the banks, also Willows. a good Camping ground. ascended over a ridge. & descended to a long level valley covered with grass. start towards a bold Rock, & halt near it, at 10 min: past 12. a small Spring & stream of Water running thro' the Gap—rested about 2 hours, when Camp again started (except Prests. Young & Kimball's Wagon's) Prest. Young having been taken very sick went thro' the Gap, the Mountains looking ready to fall on us—passing thro' a bed of Willows, cross the Creek, turn to the left, & cross the bed of a Creek, which the brethren had mended with Willows & dirt—then ascend a gentle hill in a Southerly direction with many flowers on, & descend a winding course between hills to a beautiful vale. Camp at 6 P.M. <9¾ A.M.> [+] 6¾ P.M. [=] 16 ½ miles[.] here is a small Creek, and Spring of good Water. Plenty of grass. about 12 Antelope killed.
in the evening a slight shower of rain, with Thunder & Lightning passed over the Camp & Country. the first "Pacific Thunder Shower" we have had.
Elders Pratt & Carrington laid hands on me, to rebuke my sickness
The brethren visit a Cave a short distance from Camp.
Tuesday 13 A Pleasant morning. another beautiful Spring found a short distance from Camp. I was some better, visited the <"Swallow"> Cave, which is 36 feet by 26 feet & about 4 to 6 feet high. many of the brethren have engraved their names on the sides. there are about 50 swallows nests attached to the Roof, upon close inspection they are swarming with bed bugs. about noon Elder Kimball, arrived in Camp, and reported Prest. Young some better. the brethren were called together, to consult what was best to be done, when a Shower came on, Prests. Kimball, Richards, Pratt, Woodruff & Smith took shelter in Drs. Wagon & held a consultation. after the Thunder Shower had passed over—brethren again met, when it was voted that Orson Pratt be commander over the Expedition to look out a road, instead of going thro' the Kanyon—that Stephen Markham be Aid[e].
John S. Freeman
Marcus B. Thorpe
Ben B. Crow
Lewis B. Meyers
Hans C. Hanson
John S. Gleason
John S. Eldredge
Levi N. Kendall
First Division, 7 Wagons 15 Men
Second Division 16 Wagons 27 Men
Total 23 Wagons 42 Men
the teams were gathered up & the Company left the Camp at ½ past 2. Prest Kimball dined with Prest. Richards & TB, and then returned to his Camp, accompanied by George A. Smith, who returned in the evening saying the Prest was very sick & would not be able to move for a day or two. A Cloudy Pleasant Evening. Prest. Richards had a Well dug nearer the Camp, the Water has a Sulphury taste with it.
With this rest, TB was enabled to bring up his arrears of Notes. being too weak, was very fainty at night. Bro: Clayton very sick to day. Our Camp was stiller to night, than has been since we left Fort John.
Wednesday 14 TB felt some better. sat in the Cave all day <(with J.H. Goddard)> made another copy of "The Word and Will of the Lord" endorsed it "Thomas Bullock," according to Prest. Young's directions—Warm day—the brethren generally out hunting— Prest Woodruff & Albert Carrington went to visit the President.
several Antelopes galloping near the Camp—the Swallows very busy, attending to the wants of their young. Clouds floating about in the afternoon—a little after dusk—brothers Woodruff & Adams returned, reporting the Prest. some better—but A. P. Rockwood is very sick and delirious. a meeting of the brethren was called round the Drs. Wagon when it was voted to hitch up and remove the Camp a short distance in the morning.
after the horn had blown, many of the brethren sat up as usual, when a Shower of rain came on, to send them to their Wagons & remind them of the 5th law of the Camp.
Thursday 15 Immediately after breakfast Elder Woodruff went out with his Carriage to carry Prest. Young, & A.P. Rockwood into Camp. about noon he returned. Prest. Young & bro Rockwood being much better, the 8 wagons that had been left behind, returned at the same time. Morning Cloudy but pleasant. when the Cattle were gathered up & commenced Harnessing—a Shower, passed over. Camp start at [blank space] over a pretty good road. pass a Spring in about 2 miles, then descend to the ravine, continue until about ½ past 3 when Circle was formed, near a beautiful Spring, between some bold hills on all sides, travelled 4½ miles[.] had 3 Showers during the day, two of them accompanied by thunder. afterwards a Pleasant evening. good camp ground; seven varieties of pretty flowers gathered within twenty yards of my Wagon. TB very sick. Dr. gave some Pills. made me vomit.
Friday 16 Two Thunder Showers before starting. I was some easier, Thos. Cloward drove my team. at ¼ to 9 Camp start down a narrow ravine, hemmed in by high mountains. crossed a steep pitch, many had to double teams to get out. crossed the Creek several times during the day. at one place Wm. Smoot broke the reach of his Wagon, unloaded it[.] the brethren removed the Wagon box, & Wheels. & repaired the reach, while others made a new road across—at ½ past 12 the Camp came to a halt at 6¾ miles, near a Spring. O.P. Rockwell arrived from O. Pratt's advanced Camp—reports the Canion about 20 miles distant—they had found the Cut off. & were to ascend it to day. at [blank space] start again—thro' a narrower way, many times, appearing blocked up by the Rocks, some places could not see two Wagons ahead. many beds of Willow passed thro' to my great joy, as well as others, found Hops flourishing, a pretty good proof of the absence of severe frosts. & shews a mild climate. also Elder in Flower—Gooseberries ripe, Roses in full bloom, many Flowers, Wild Wheat, plenty of grass. & many Springs of good Water. continued down this vale, between very high rocks, until when formed a Circle having travelled 9½ mi: total 16¼ miles. fine day.
Saturday 17 the blacksmiths repaired Solomon Chamberlain's Axle Tree, which he had broken last night, when gathered up teams, started at 20 to 10 in about one mile turned round a high bold rock, to the right following the course of the "Weber River" & camped on the East bank, at [blank space] travelled 2½ miles, the banks are covered with thin tall Cotton Wood, and other Trees; & Shrubs. in some places scarce possible for men to creep thro'. the Water is very Clear. & has some fine speckled trout in it. the brethren caught some fine ones during the afternoon. Warm, clear day. Prest. Young, A.P. Rockwood, & several others very sick—Mosquitoes plenty. about 2 P.M. H.C. Kimball, W. Richards, E.T. Benson, G.A. Smith. John Pack. H. Egan, Dr. Richards, T Bullock, E. Snow, & Lorenzo Young; & A. Carrington, ascended a very high & steep hill—& prayed to God for the Sick to be healed, the Camps to be prospered—the Saints to be blessed &c &cthey amused themselves by rolling large rocks down the hills. afterwards Elders Kimball, Smith & Egan visit the Kanyon—& did not return until 10 at night—which caused some uneasiness to the Camp.
Sunday 18 Warm Clear day. Prest Young very sick. about 8 oclock El. Kimball called the bretheren together at the Drs. Wagon & stated his wish that the day should be spent in prayer, instead of scattering all over the Country—when it was decided to assemble at 10. the brethren went to work, transplanting the tops of trees & built a beautiful bowery[.] in one of the trees was a bird's nest. at 10 oclock the brethren met pursuant to agreement. El Kimball again spoke. he proposed to the brethren that all the Camp (except 8 or 10 Wagons) should proceed on their journey in the morning, look out a place to plant Potatoes & seeds, as the time had come to plant which was agreed to, several of the brethren prayed & expressed their feelings & adjourned to 2 P.M. at 2 they again assembled, the Bishops administred the Sacrament. the brethren enjoyed a good day. near the close of the meeting El. Kimball reported that Prest. Young was much better, that our prayers were answered, which caused all hearts to rejoice [blank space] a very warm day
made out a table of distances for Amasa Lyman & Charles C. Rich.
Monday 19 Warm morning. Prest. Young much better. Camp gather up & start. but two Steers being missing Dr. Richards could not start until ¼ to 8—when Prest. Young removed down the river about 2 miles, where we left him with El. Kimball[,] Woodruff, Benson & 8 or 10 other Wagons—we then crossed over Weber River about 5 rods wide, & as deep as the Axle trees. El. Snow was waiting to guide us to the Cut off, where we found a guide board "Pratts Pass, to avoid the Kanyon to Fort Bridger 74¼ miles"[.] we then passed thro' a heavy patch of Artimesia to the foot of the hill, then ascended a hill by a winding course, mending a bridge[.] El. Kimball, Woodruff, Smith, and Howard Egan passed us on horseback. and again met them when near the top of the hill—descended in a sideling direction— G.A. Smith's Wagon Wheels gave way, going down the hill. after travelling 10½ miles we watered our Cattle in a ravine. then turned suddenly to the right at a ravine, and passed over a high hill—after descending a considerable distance we crossed "Kanyon Creek" and came to a halt in a thick patch of Willows 13¾ miles[.] here we found many Currants and Gooseberries just ripening. several accidents occurred thro' the day—which caused Frost to put up his Blacksmith's shop to repair the Wagons[.] Warm, dusty day. very cold night.
Tuesday 20 Frosty night. Ice in Water Buckets—the Blacksmiths repair the Wagon which delayed the Camp until near 1 o'clock. brothers Sherwood & Dewey & Case being very sick—they staid with their Wagons &c at this place—the remainder started up "Kanyon Creek," crossing it several times—repairing the road over it—& thro' the Willows all the way. brother Crow returned to Camp bringing word that their Camp is about 9 miles ahead & were ascending a very steep hill—when we had travelled about 4 miles halted to water & refresh teams, until the rear came up. again started up the ravine—clearing the Willows, repairing the road all the way. we could not find a room for the Camp until we had travelled about 7¼ miles. here is a very large Spring of Cold Water—but tolerable grass. this has been a crooked & rough days journey. & hard driving thro' the Stumps & Stones. one place we passed thro' many tall Cotton Wood Trees. the remainder of the road thro' Willows, Aspen, Gooseberry bushes & briars, at this place Elder Pratt left a letter of directions—having explored the Country ahead. (on file) I made copy of same for benefit of Prest. Young. Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich. & fixed it in a Crotch of a Stick
Wednesday 21 Dr. dictated a long letter to El. Orson Pratt in reply, which I copied[.] read to Dr. & G.A. Smith, which they signed. & then sent it by Erastus Snow. Gathered up teams and start at ½ past 6—crossed the Kanyon Creek once more then turned to the right, ascend the mountains by a gradual ascent up a ravine, clearing away the rocks & repairing the road—pass several Springs of Cold water. go thro' quite a forest of Aspen, Balsam of Fir, & Cotton Wood[.] as we ascended higher the road became steeper—until we reached the highest point. & immediately commenced a very rapid descent. many teams having to lock both wheels. the road lay thro' a very thick forest of Aspen[,] Poplar Trees with an immense growth of Weeds & Flowers—the brethren cut out the Stumps of Trees & made a very good road—one Wagon was upset in the ditch but got out without any damage. Watered our Cattle at a small run of Water & then proceeded on until we came to a good sized Creek, made a better bridge over it. crossing several times travelled thro' thick Willows, some Oak, Black Birch & Maple. scarce room to pass thro' then out into an open Country. found a good Spring of Water, then turned to the right to avoid a rough Kanyon, ascended a big steep hill—at the top could see the next Camp. descended to another run of Water which is muddy, passed two or three ugly places & camped in a bed of Wild Wheat at [blank space] travelled 14 miles in 13 hours. Col[one]l Markham came to superintend our Camping. the Cannon & Brother Frost's Wagon were left behind. Warm, dusty day,
Thursday 22 Many rushes by the sides of the Creeks. Elder Pratt came up to our Camp & consulted with W. Richards & G. A. Smith, when it was decided that O. Pratt, G. A. Smith with several others should go ahead & look out a place to plant; while W. Richards was to take the lead of the Pioneers in preparing the way thro' the Kanyon. Gather up & start at 9[.] soon pass the other Camping ground. went through a heavy Willow bed, overtook the last teams; graded the hill each side the Creek. when teams halted while extra hands go to repair the roads—then crossed over & entered the Kanyon; which required much hard work to make a road thro'—. succeeded in getting thro' the narrow spot of the Kanyon about 4 oclock, when we turned round the hill to the right. & came in full view of the Salt Lake in the distance, with its bold hills on its Islands towering up in bold relief behind the Silvery Lake—a very extensive valley burst upon our view, dotted in 3 or 4 places with Timber. I should expect the valley to be about 30 miles long & 20 miles wide. I could not help shouting "hurra, hurra, hurra, heres my home at last"—the Sky is very clear, the air delightful & altogether looks glorious; the only drawback appearing to be the absence of timber—but there is an Ocean of Stone in the mountains, to build Stone houses, & Walls for fencing. if we can only find a bed of Coal we can do well; & be hidden up in the Mountains unto the Lord. we descended a gentle sloping table land to a lower level where the Soil & grass improve in appearance. as we progressed down the valley, small Clumps of dwarf Oak, & Willows appear, the Wheat Grass grows 6 or 7 feet high, many different kinds of grass appear, some being 10 or 12 feet high. after wading thro' thick grass for some distance, we found a place bare enough for a Camping ground, the grass being only knee deep but very thick. we camped on the banks of a beautiful little Stream; which was surrounded by very tall grass. in digging a place down to the stream. cut thro' a thin bed of Clay. after about a foot depth of rich soil; then rich soil again. many mosquitoes about in the evening—a rattle snake killed near the Camp—a scorpion seen by young bro: Crow. many of the brethren met in the evening round the Camp fire—to hear the report of O. Pratt, G. A. Smith & several others who had been out on an Exploring Expedition on horseback. they report having been about 20 miles north—about 4 miles from this Camp ground are two beautiful Streams of Water with Stoney bottom. beyond that is a Saline Country, & about 50 mineral Springs. one will do for a barber's Shop & the largest Spring rushes out of a large rock. having a large Stone in the middle would make a first rate Thomsonian Steam House. they explored about 20 miles North. they have picked out a place for a permanent Camp ground. Dr. dictates a long letter to Prest. Young.
Pratts Pass is 35 miles from where it enters the mountains on Weber River, to the outlet of the Kanyon, opening into the Valley of the Salt Lake.
saw a magpie, several Sand Hill Cranes—a Hawk—the wandering Milk Weed & other herbs.
Friday 23 Clear Sky, warm morning—I copied the long letter to Prest. Young—which was read to, & signed by Prests. O. Pratt, G. A. Smith & W. Richards. I also made out the table of distances. & route from Weber River to this place. gave both to Major Pack, who went back to the Prest. Camp gather up & starts about 7. took the back track about a mile, then a strait road to a small Grove of Cotton Wood Trees —on the banks of a beautiful Stream of Water covered on both sides with Willows & Shrubs. here is very rich land, deep grass & the intended location for a farm. W. Clayton allows that we are about 2 miles further from Winter Quarters than last nights Camp
From Winter Quartrs to Junction of Forks 333 miles (guessed)
Junction to Fort John 227 miles (measured)
Fort John to Fort Bridger 347 miles (measured)
Fort Bridger to the Farm 116 miles (measured)
From Winter Quarters to Location 1073 miles
about ½ past 9 the brethren were called together & after a few introductory remarks by El: O. Pratt, O. Pratt made prayer to Almighty God, returning thanks for the preservation of the Camp, their prosperity in the journey, safe arrival in this place; consecrated and dedicated the land to the Lord; & entreated his blessings on the seeds about to be planted; & on our labors in this valley. after a few remarks by El. Pratt & Richards—a Committee of Five; Shadrack Roundy, Seth Taft, Stephen Markham, Robert Crow, & Albert Carrington—were appointed to look out a place for planting Potatoes, Corn, Beans &c who left meeting for that purpose. it was then voted that Charles A. Harper, Charles Shumway & Elijah Newman be a committee to Stock Plows & Drags & to call those men to their assistance that they wanted—it was also voted that Henson Walker, William Wadsworth & John Brown be a committee to superintend the mowing & rigging up of Scythes—Stephen Markham was appointed to attend to the Teams, & see that fresh sets were hitched up every four hours—it was motioned that every man plant his own potatoes & seeds as he pleases. and also motioned that Almon Williams oversee the making of a Coal Pit—Dr. Richards advised that no man leave the Camp, but attend to his seeds & put them in. G. A. Smith recommended the brethren to gather out the dead timber & leave the live timber standing. & to use as little wood as possible in their cooking. Abut ½ past 11 Committee reported, they had staked off; a piece of fine ground 40 rods by 20 for Potatoes—also a suitable place for beans, Corn & buckwheat. the soil is fertile, friable loam, with fine gravel—at 12 o'clock the first furrow was turned by Capt. Taft's Company—there were 3 Plows & 1 Harrow at work most of the afternoon[.] Tafts Plow got broke. at 2 o'clock the brethren commenced building a dam, & cutting trenches to convey the water , to irrigate the Land—at 4 oclock other brethren commenced mowing the grass, to prepare a turnip patch. about 6 heavy clouds & a thunder shower passed over the camp. a South West wind. at dark Major Pack reported, that Prest. Young was this side the Mountain, camped on the Creek, a few miles back & were all better. regulations were entered into about the Teams & Plow men to work from 4 A.M. to 8 P.M. coursing by teams of 4 hours each
Saturday 24 A warm morning—Clouds flying. the brethren very busy, Plowing, Stocking Plows & Cutting ditches to irrigate the Land. about noon the 5 acre potatoe patch was plowed, when the brethren commenced planting their seed ptatoes—Amasa Lyman's plow got broke. the brethren then planted some Early Corn—the Plowers continued at work, on the South of the Potato Patch
when the ditch was completed, the Water was turned on to irrigate the Potatoe Patch, which answered very well. about 2 o'clock Prest. Young[,]