Joseph Smith lived in Ohio from 1831 to 1838. Those seven years were full of progress and blessings for the newly established Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Dozens of missionaries shared the message of the restored gospel, and Church membership grew to include thousands of members. Faithful Saints consecrated their properties to care for the poor and to build up the Church. New revelations were received and published as the Doctrine and Covenants. Some revelations called for service in priesthood offices and quorums in the first stake of Zion, and men were called to fill those positions. Many other Saints gave their time and talents to build a temple, where Church members received glorious spiritual gifts.
These years were also full of challenges for the young Church: the first anti-Mormon book was published, and violence against Mormons in Ohio and Missouri shook the faith of many Saints. Then came an economic downturn that many thought a true prophet should have foreseen and avoided. At a time when many people were joining the Church, many others were choosing to separate themselves from Joseph Smith and his teachings.
Looking back on these seven years, it can be tempting to separate apostates and faithful Saints into opposing, even hostile categories. The story of the John and Elsa Johnson family provides a more complete picture of the way people responded to challenges to their faith, and it demonstrates how family members supported each other through those challenges.
Conversion and Commitment
Nineteen-year-old Lyman was the first of the Johnson family to listen to the gospel message and join the Church. He was baptized in February 1831. Lyman’s enthusiasm after his conversion prompted his parents to study the Book of Mormon. John and Elsa Johnson traveled the 30 miles (48 km) from their home in Hiram, Ohio, to Kirtland to visit with Joseph Smith in person. After discussion and a miraculous healing of Elsa’s arm, both parents believed and were baptized in March 1831. Eventually, as many as 8 of their 10 children became baptized members of the Church.1
|Name||Age||Residence and Family|
|Alice (Elsa)||31||Married to Oliver Olney, mother of six children|
|Fanny||28||Married to Jason Ryder, mother of four children|
|John Jr.||26||Married to Eliza Ann Marcy, no children|
|Luke Samuel||23||Unmarried, at home|
|Olmstead G.||21||Unmarried, living outside of Hiram|
|Lyman Eugene||19||Unmarried, at home|
|Emily Hannah||18||Unmarried, at home|
|Marinda Nancy||16||Unmarried, at home|
|Mary Beal||13||At home|
|Justin Jacob||10||At home|
The Johnsons who joined the Church became generous supporters of the Prophet. John and Elsa opened their home in Hiram to the Smith family and Joseph’s scribes from September 1831 to September 1832. Their home became a place of revelation and prophetic leadership.
Father Johnson served on the Kirtland stake high council. He was selected to help manage the Church’s financial assets (see D&C 96:6–9). He and his wife sold their large, prosperous farm in Hiram and turned much of the proceeds over to the Church. Some of the money supported the Missouri expedition of Zion’s Camp—a group that included Luke and Lyman Johnson as well as Marinda Johnson’s future husband, Orson Hyde. These three men were later called to serve together in the first Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in this dispensation.
In 1837 economic optimism led a “spirit of speculation” to overtake Kirtland and the surrounding area.2 Land prices rose at astonishing rates, and buying and selling on credit was rampant. To increase the supply of cash in the community, pay off debts, and curb land speculation, Church leaders followed a common practice of the time and established their own bank, known as the Kirtland Safety Society. John Johnson Sr. invested heavily in the new bank, purchasing 3,000 shares. In the end, the Johnson family owned more of the bank than anyone outside of Joseph Smith’s family.
Then came a national banking crisis. John Johnson Sr. lost faith in the Kirtland Safety Society and panicked. In May 1837, he redeemed his stock shares for cash and began to sell all the Church property remaining in his hands. While he never publicly identified his reasons for leaving the Church, the bank crisis began a major shift in his loyalty, as it did for many others in the Church.
At a conference on September 3, 1837, several Church leaders were removed from their positions because of their public opposition to Joseph Smith and Church policies. John Sr., Luke, and Lyman Johnson were among them. The two former Apostles were later excommunicated at a conference in Far West, Missouri. John, Elsa, and another son, John Jr., had withdrawn from Church participation, making five Johnsons who were no longer active members of the Church by the summer of 1838.3
These five family members were not alone. One historian estimated that 10 to 15 percent of the Kirtland Saints withdrew from the Church between November 1837 and June 1838.4 But the story of apostasy is not the full story of this family or of the other Kirtland Saints.
John Johnson Sr. remained in Kirtland until his death in 1843. He and Elsa lived near their son John Jr. and their daughter Emily Johnson Quinn. Throughout this time, Emily Quinn continued to worship with other Latter-day Saints still living in Kirtland.5 When she died in 1855, she was buried near her father and her younger sister Mary Beal Johnson.6 After Emily’s death, her mother and brothers left Kirtland for Iowa.
In 1846 Luke Johnson requested rebaptism and rejoined the main body of Saints in Nauvoo, Illinois. There he found his sister Marinda still actively involved in Church affairs. He also found the gravesite of his oldest sister, Elsa Johnson Olney, who had died as a faithful Latter-day Saint five years earlier.7 Luke Johnson and Marinda Hyde left Illinois that season, planning to settle in the Rocky Mountains with the Saints. When Luke died at his sister’s Salt Lake City home in 1861, Brigham Young stated, “Since his return to the Church he has lived . . . the truth to the best of his ability, and died in the faith.”8
Lyman Johnson moved to Keokuk, Iowa, across the Mississippi River from Nauvoo, Illinois. He continued his associations with Church members, but he was never able to regain his zeal for the gospel. Brigham Young recalled that Lyman later expressed his anguish over his loss of the Spirit. “I would give anything,” Lyman said. “I would suffer my right hand to be cut off, if I could believe it again. Then I was full of joy and gladness. . . . But now it is darkness, pain, sorrow, misery in the extreme. I have never since seen a happy moment.”9
Landmarks on the Landscape
In 1876, 60-year-old Marinda Johnson Hyde of Salt Lake City, Utah, visited her 73-year-old sister Fanny Johnson Ryder. The Ryders had never joined the Latter-day Saints and had remained in Hiram, Ohio. Since the Ryders and the Johnsons had been neighbors, Marinda would have seen her childhood home during her visit, where her parents had supported a prophet in his divine calling. Thirty miles away in Kirtland, the old Johnson Inn also still stood, and not far away, in the shadow of the Kirtland Temple, were the graves of her father and two sisters.
Today the Johnson home in Hiram, the headstones in the Kirtland North Cemetery, and a replica of the Johnson Inn all stand as reminders of this family—one of many families—who worked with Joseph Smith to establish a stake of Zion in Ohio. And they are reminders of the faith and sacrifice that such work demands.