Time Line: The Church in Ohio and Missouri, 1830–1839

    October 1830

    Missionaries en route to federal Indian territories preach in Ohio and baptize about 130 people in Kirtland, Mentor, Orange, Thompson, and Amherst Townships.

    January 1831

    Three months after receiving the call to preach to the American Indians (see D&C 28, 30, 32), missionaries reach Jackson County, Missouri, and begin preaching to the Delaware and Shawnee nations across the Missouri River without proper government permission. Federal Indian agents shut down the mission after just a few weeks.

    February 1831

    Joseph Smith arrives at Newel K. Whitney’s store after a revelation commanded members of the Church to gather to Ohio (see D&C 37). Edward Partridge is called as a bishop, and the law of the Church is revealed (see D&C 41, 42).

    30 April 1831

    While living at the Morley farm near Kirtland, Emma Smith gives birth to twins, who die shortly after birth. John Murdock’s wife also dies after delivering twins the same day. Joseph and Emma adopt the Murdock twins nine days after birth.

    May 1831

    New York branches arrive in Ohio. The Saints of the Colesville Branch settle in Thompson.

    June 1831

    First high priests in this dispensation are ordained on Isaac Morley’s farm.

    20 July 1831

    The Lord reveals that Independence, Missouri, is the center place of Zion. Edward Partridge, who was serving as bishop, is commanded to stay in Zion (see D&C 57).

    August 1831

    Sidney Rigdon dedicates Jackson County for a place of gathering. Joseph Smith dedicates the temple site and receives other revelations (see D&C 58, 59, 60).

    September 1831

    Joseph Smith and his family move into John and Elsa Johnson’s home in Hiram. Joseph resumes translating the New Testament.

    25 October 1831

    General conference takes place in Orange, Ohio.

    December 1831

    Newel K. Whitney is appointed bishop in Kirtland, the second bishop called in the Church.

    January 1832

    Bishop Partridge requests that Church leaders in Ohio send more skilled craftsmen to Missouri. Nearly 1,200 acres are owned by Church members in Jackson County.

    25 January 1832

    At a Church conference in Amherst, Ohio, Joseph Smith is ordained and sustained as president of the high priesthood (see D&C 75).

    16 February 1832

    While in Hiram, Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon receive visions of the three kingdoms of glory (see D&C 76).

    24 March 1832

    Joseph and Sidney Rigdon are tarred and feathered on the Johnson farm in Hiram. Joseph’s adopted son, Joseph Murdock Smith, dies five days later.

    26 April 1832

    The United Firm is created in Jackson County to oversee the temporal affairs of the Church (see D&C 82).

    June 1832

    Almost 100 members arrive in Missouri from Ohio without formal permission to settle in Zion. Others settle without permission over the next year.

    12 September 1832

    Joseph and his family move into the Whitneys’ store. Joseph Smith III is born there two months later.


    Church leaders in Jackson County receive a letter from Joseph Smith in the fall expressing frustration over some members’ conduct that generated hostility among local citizens.

    January 1833

    The Lord commands Church members to build a house of God in Kirtland (see D&C 88). First meetings of the School of the Prophets are held.

    26 February 1833

    A special council of high priests reports that Saints in Missouri are repentant and seek unity with leaders in Ohio. Joseph Smith accepts and implores the Saints in Missouri to be humble and obedient.

    27 February 1833

    The Lord reveals the Word of Wisdom (see D&C 89) at the Whitney Store.

    May 1833

    Dissension continues among Church members in Jackson County. Bishop Partridge receives counsel from Joseph Smith clarifying how to handle land transactions under the law of consecration (now part of D&C 51).

    June 1833

    The Lord rebukes the Church for not building His house, and the First Presidency sees the Kirtland Temple in vision (see D&C 95). The Lord reveals the plat for the city of Zion.

    6 June 1833

    Construction begins on the Kirtland Temple.

    2 July 1833

    Joseph finishes his inspired translation of the Bible at the Whitney Store.

    20 July 1833

    Between 1,000 and 1,200 Latter-day Saints live in Jackson County. Mob violence erupts in Independence. Mobbers destroy W. W. Phelps’s printing office and scatter pages of the Book of Commandments. Bishop Edward Partridge and Charles Allen are tarred and feathered. Three days later, the Saints sign an agreement to leave Jackson County.

    23 July 1833

    Workers lay the cornerstones for the Kirtland Temple.

    31 October 1833

    Mob vigilante attacks multiply in Church settlements throughout Jackson County. Church members flee the county in the following months.


    During the fall, Church members begin building a saw mill on Stoney Brook in Kirtland.

    18 December 1833

    Joseph Smith gives the first patriarchal blessings of this dispensation at the Johnson Inn in Kirtland.

    17 February 1834

    The first stake of the Church is organized in Kirtland.

    5 May 1834

    Zion’s Camp leaves for Missouri.

    July 1834

    Zion’s Camp arrives in Missouri. The Lord commands the men not to fight (see D&C 105). Members of Zion’s Camp are officially discharged on July 3.

    July 1834

    Joseph Smith organizes a presidency and high council for Missouri near Liberty, in Clay County. David Whitmer is sustained as president.

    October 1834

    The first issue of the Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate is published in Kirtland.

    November 1834

    The School of the Elders is organized in Kirtland.

    14 February 1835

    The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles is organized in Kirtland.

    28 February 1835

    The First Quorum of the Seventy is organized in Kirtland.

    July 1835

    Michael Chandler sells papyrus scrolls and mummies to the Church. Joseph Smith spends the next several months translating the Egyptian writing from his home.

    17 August 1835

    The Doctrine and Covenants is accepted as a standard work of the Church. Copies are ready for distribution the following month.

    November 1835

    Emma Smith’s hymnal begins printing in Kirtland and becomes available early in 1836.

    21 January 1836

    While in the Kirtland Temple, Joseph sees a vision of the celestial kingdom (D&C 137). Spiritual manifestations continue in the weeks leading up to the temple’s dedication.

    27 March 1836

    The Kirtland Temple is dedicated. A second dedicatory session occurs four days later.


    Church leaders explore the future site of Far West during the spring.

    3 April 1836

    Jesus Christ, Moses, Elias, and Elijah appear in the temple and commit priesthood keys to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery.

    20 June 1836

    Frederick Granger Williams Smith is born to Joseph and Emma at their home in Kirtland.

    29 June 1836

    Clay County residents request that the Church leave Clay County.

    8 August 1836

    The Church purchases the site that becomes the city of Far West, Missouri.

    2 November 1836

    The Kirtland Safety Society is organized. It opens for business in January 1837.

    29 December 1836

    Caldwell County is created for the Mormons. Daviess County is also created.

    May 1837

    A nationwide bank panic hits the state of Ohio. Many blame Joseph Smith for financial losses incurred through the Kirtland Safety Society.

    13 June 1837

    Heber C. Kimball and others leave Kirtland on a mission to England.

    7 November 1837

    Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon preside at a conference at Far West. David Whitmer and his counselors are sustained again as a presidency for all of Missouri. Tensions persist between Missouri leaders and the First Presidency.

    November 1837

    The Kirtland Safety Society closes.

    December 1837

    Kirtland high council excommunicates 28 dissenters, including Martin Harris.

    12 January 1838

    Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon flee from Kirtland, taking their families to Missouri. Other Saints also begin leaving Ohio.

    10 February 1838

    Thomas B. Marsh, President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, dissolves the Missouri presidency.

    14 March 1838

    Joseph Smith arrives at Far West. He approves the removal of the Missouri presidency. Several other Church leaders, including Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer, are excommunicated that spring.

    26 April 1838

    The Lord reveals in Far West that the name of His Church is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (see D&C 115).

    19 May 1838

    Joseph Smith learns more about Adam-ondi-Ahman in Daviess County through revelation (see D&C 116). Five weeks later, on June 28, 1838, the third stake of Zion is organized there.

    4 July 1838

    Sidney Rigdon delivers an inflammatory Independence Day speech near the temple site at Far West.

    6 July 1838

    Kirtland Camp of about 500 Saints leaves for Missouri.

    11 October 1838

    Saints evacuate De Witt in Carroll County after a three-week siege from armed vigilantes. Missouri militia leaders choose not to intervene.

    25 October 1838

    Apostle David W. Patten leads Mormon militiamen in the Battle of Crooked River in Ray County. He dies from his wounds later that day.

    27 October 1838

    Missouri governor Lilburn W. Boggs issues an extermination order against the Saints.

    30 October 1838

    Unaware of the governor’s order, a mob attacks Latter-day Saints at Hawn’s Mill in Caldwell County, killing 17 and wounding 14.

    31 October 1838

    Joseph Smith and other Church leaders are arrested near Far West.

    November 1838

    Joseph Smith and several other prisoners are taken first to Independence and then to Richmond, Missouri, for preliminary hearings.

    1 December 1838

    Joseph Smith and five others are imprisoned in Liberty, Missouri. Other prisoners are released or kept in Richmond to await trial.


    The Saints’ printing office in Kirtland is destroyed by fire.

    January 1839

    Sidney Rigdon is released from Liberty Jail after a court hearing.

    February 1839

    Large-scale evacuation of Latter-day Saints from Missouri to Illinois begins.

    20 March 1839

    Joseph Smith shares from Liberty Jail divine comfort and direction for the Saints received through revelation (see D&C 121, 122, 123).

    6 April 1839

    Prisoners in Liberty Jail leave for a court hearing. Ten days later, they are allowed to escape to Illinois.

    26 April 1839

    Fulfilling prophecy at the peril of their lives, seven Apostles gather at the Far West temple site before leaving on foreign missions.

    4 July 1839

    After moving from Richmond to Columbia, Parley P. Pratt and two other prisoners escape from jail and head to Illinois. King Follett remains a prisoner in Missouri for several more months.