Ann Smiley

Birth Date
Between 1837 – 1839 (Born)
Death Date
Unknown (Died)

Ann was the daughter of Hannah and was an African American woman enslaved by Robert M. Smith who, according to "John Brown's company of 10, report," brought her to Utah.

It is interesting to note that the 1850 Census listed Ann's "color" as "yellow." At that time, a designation of "yellow" may be indicative of a multi-racial background.

The 1850 Census was actually taken in 1851.

Ann's exact birth date is not known. The 1850 Census, "John Brown's company of 10, report," and the book, Negro Trail Blazers of California, indicate she was born sometime between 1837 and 1839.  

While still enslaved, Ann and her family were taken to California (by Robert M. Smith) where they eventually gained their freedom.

Family tradition states that Ann married a Manuel Peppers. There is some indirect and secondary evidence that supports this claim. There was a Manuel and Ann Peppers living in Los Angeles in the 1860 Census. It is interesting to note that within the household were also two boys named Charles and Nathaniel Embers. Secondary sources state that Hannah (Ann's mother) married a Toby Embers Crosby. Also, in the household was a seven year old girl named Mary Pepper. On pages 88-90 In the book, Negro Trail Blazers of California, the transcribed court proceeding stated that Hannah's daughter Ann had a daughter named Mary. There is also a reference to a "Manuel Peppers" in the book Notable Black American Women edited by Jessie Carney Smith which gives further evidence of a marriage between Ann and a Manuel Peppers. The reference states, "The two men, Charles Owens and Manuel Pepper, were determined to keep Smith from separating them from Biddy's and Hannah's young daughters, with whom they had romantic relationships." More research is needed to prove this relationship.

Read More